The Best Career Options for EC Engineers in VLSI Companies
Electronics and Communication is considered one of the toughest engineering branches. However, the rewards that it offers in terms of some of the most challenging and exciting careers make studying this branch totally worth it. VLSI or Very Large Scale Integration also sometimes known as Chip design is one of the subdomains of electronics, dealing with the particular logic and circuit design techniques required to design integrated circuits.
There are numerous good opportunities for individuals after completing B.Tech in ECE. One can resort to private companies which offer competitive salaries, ample opportunities to learn and an exciting career path. On the other hand, public sector companies also have a number of great opportunities that one can pursue in the electronics. However, if you want a job in the government sector then there are other additional requirements such as clearing the entrance exam conducted by Union Public Service Commission or State Public Service Commission. Out of so many subsets of Electronics and Communication Engineering, VLSI holds special importance as it has some of the highest paying careers for professionals.
VLSI or Very Large Scale Integration is all about Integrated Design. In layman’s language it is known as chip design. This is a highly technical field which requires complete understanding of complex semiconductor concepts. VLSI design is mainly treated as hardware design as one is required to define the chip’s architecture, create circuit designs, run simulations, tape out the chip to the foundry and test the prototype once the chip returns from the laboratory. Individuals who are creative and try something more challenging than the jobs out there should look for jobs in VLSI. You will need good programming skills along with excellent mathematical and analytical aptitude. Expertise in high level languages such as Verilog and VHDL, which are probably the most popular languages in chip designing, is one of the important criterions of getting selected for a job in VLSI.
Industry news
These are the times of wearable technology. Even clothes have chips inside them. Then there are the electronic appliances that we simply can’t think of even living without such as microwave ovens, air conditioners, mobile phones, televisions and others. There is little doubt over the bright future of chip designers and programmers and therefore, making a career in this field can be of huge advantage. VLSI engineers can work in wide variety of industries such as Telecommunication, consumer electronics, semiconductor, embedded systems amongst others. These engineering jobs are also the best paid employment opportunities in India.
Different Types of Job Opportunities
One can differentiate between different types of jobs in VLSI by either the industry or the work responsibilities. Going by the kind of work, there are mainly four types of jobs:
Design Engineer
A design engineer, also known as physical design engineer is mainly responsible for design implementation. One needs to be technically sound to efficiently deliver the work responsibilities. One deals with different kinds of chip designs such as ASIC, FPGA, DFT, AMS, PCB and other custom designs. The various job titles that are assumed by professionals handling all this work include PCB designer, Backend designer, Frontend designer, AMS designer, DFT designer and Library developer.
Verification Engineer
As the name suggests, verification engineer verifies the design and makes sure that it works fine. India is known for its world class verification facilities and around 70% of projects here are related to verification. Therefore, the demand for verification engineers is maximum in India. To make it big in this field one needs to have strong programming skills. The different types of verifications undertaken by professionals include frontend verification, acceleration, product validation, behavioral modeling, and Verification IP implementation. Modeling engineers, Validation engineers, verification consultants all have similar responsibilities.
Application Engineer
An application engineer is responsible for creating the interface between the R&D and customers and promoting EDA solution. In order to effectively carry out these responsibilities, an application engineer should have good communication and interpersonal skills. With excellent presentation abilities one can go places under this job title. Field Application Engineer and Corporate Application Engineer are some of the job titles in this field.
There is a huge potential in the market for those interested in VLSI. The demand of chip designers is higher than the supply, which means the existing roles are highly paid as well, a winwin situation for VLSI engineers.
Author Bio:
Saurabh Tyagi is a blogger and a professional career author with proven expertise in writing for topics related to jobs, job trends, different job opportunities, various workplace and industry information, tips and strategies for job seekers.
NIELIT scientist recruitment for ECE freshers
National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology (NIELIT),Delhi invites applications for Scientist, Scientific/ Technical Asst Vacancies.
Qualification: BE/ B.Tech. in Computer Science or Computer Engg, Information Technology, Electronics & Communication OR BE/ B.Tech. in Electronics & Telecommunication
M.Sc. (Physics) OR M. Sc. (Electronics /Applied Electronics) with one year of relevant experience
How to apply: interested Candidates should apply Online before 28082017 (5:30 P.M).
Click for more details
Reference: http://www.eqans.com/job/NIELIT
Qualification: BE/ B.Tech. in Computer Science or Computer Engg, Information Technology, Electronics & Communication OR BE/ B.Tech. in Electronics & Telecommunication
M.Sc. (Physics) OR M. Sc. (Electronics /Applied Electronics) with one year of relevant experience
How to apply: interested Candidates should apply Online before 28082017 (5:30 P.M).
Click for more details
Reference: http://www.eqans.com/job/NIELIT
UTC aerospace Graduate trainee job in banglore
Company: UTC Aerospace
Location: Banglore
Last date: As soon as possible
Qualifications: B.E/B.Tech/M.E/m.TechECE,EEE
Job Description: This position is for the Electronics & Motor Control Center (EMCC) at Global Engineering Centre, UTC Aerospace Systems.
Primary Responsibilities: • Executes Value Engineering, New Product Introduction and Production support projects. • Software Validation as per requirements provided. • Conducts Unit tests/ Functional & System Test on the development environment or target systems. • Participates in Software design reviews and Code walk through. o Debugging and troubleshooting. Knowledge,
Skills and Abilities: Required: • Electronics Engineering (B.E/B.Tech / M.E/M.Tech,.) degree in Electronics with > 70% marks • Good programming skills in Embedded C, Ada, C++ and any Assembly language. * Good RTOS fundamentals. * Good understanding and usage of Serial communication protocols RS232/422, SPI, * Understanding of software development tools/ configuration management tools will be a plus
How to apply: Interested candidates should apply online.
Click here for more details
Location: Banglore
Last date: As soon as possible
Qualifications: B.E/B.Tech/M.E/m.TechECE,EEE
Job Description: This position is for the Electronics & Motor Control Center (EMCC) at Global Engineering Centre, UTC Aerospace Systems.
Primary Responsibilities: • Executes Value Engineering, New Product Introduction and Production support projects. • Software Validation as per requirements provided. • Conducts Unit tests/ Functional & System Test on the development environment or target systems. • Participates in Software design reviews and Code walk through. o Debugging and troubleshooting. Knowledge,
Skills and Abilities: Required: • Electronics Engineering (B.E/B.Tech / M.E/M.Tech,.) degree in Electronics with > 70% marks • Good programming skills in Embedded C, Ada, C++ and any Assembly language. * Good RTOS fundamentals. * Good understanding and usage of Serial communication protocols RS232/422, SPI, * Understanding of software development tools/ configuration management tools will be a plus
How to apply: Interested candidates should apply online.
Click here for more details
KRCL 2017 recruitment for junior engineers
Applications are invited from eligible land loser candidates (Self / Sons / Spouse / Unmarried daughters / Grand sons / Unmarried Grand daughters only) whose land has been acquired for Konkan Railway project, irrespective of the percentage of land lost and from other than land losers, candidates belonging to all categories (UR/OBC/SC/ST) from the states Maharashtra, Goa and Karnataka only.
Company: KONKAN RAILWAY CORPORATION LIMITED
Post Name: Junior engineer(Signal and telecom)
Qualifications:Three years Diploma in (a) Electrical/Electronics/information Technology/ communication Engineering/ Computer Science & Engineering /Computer Science/Computer Engineering OR (b) a combination of any sub stream of basic streams of Electrical/Electronics/ Information Technology/ Communication Engineering from a recognized University/Institute.
How to apply: Candidates are required to apply through ON LINE model only, however a print out of ON LINE application signed by the candidate is to be submitted to Senior Recruitment Officer , Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd, Belapur Bhavan, Sec11, CBD/ Belapur, Navi Mumbai400614 on or before 17/07/2017 by 17.30 hrs personally or by registered post. Applications sent to or submitted at other offices of KRCL other than the office of Senior Recruitment Officer will not be considered.
Click here to know more details
Company: KONKAN RAILWAY CORPORATION LIMITED
Post Name: Junior engineer(Signal and telecom)
Qualifications:Three years Diploma in (a) Electrical/Electronics/information Technology/ communication Engineering/ Computer Science & Engineering /Computer Science/Computer Engineering OR (b) a combination of any sub stream of basic streams of Electrical/Electronics/ Information Technology/ Communication Engineering from a recognized University/Institute.
How to apply: Candidates are required to apply through ON LINE model only, however a print out of ON LINE application signed by the candidate is to be submitted to Senior Recruitment Officer , Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd, Belapur Bhavan, Sec11, CBD/ Belapur, Navi Mumbai400614 on or before 17/07/2017 by 17.30 hrs personally or by registered post. Applications sent to or submitted at other offices of KRCL other than the office of Senior Recruitment Officer will not be considered.
Click here to know more details
Sunday, June 18, 2017
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National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology (NIELIT) syllabus for electronics
Every year Nielit recruits scientistB from various branches here i am giving syllabus for electronics and communications branch.
Electronics and Communication Engineering (EC):
Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula,Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Transform Theory: Fourier transform,Laplace transform, Ztransform.
Electronics and Communication Engineering technical
Networks: Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems:
superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, WyeDelta transformation.Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations;time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplacetransform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2port network parameters: driving pointand transfer functions. State equations for networks.
Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers.pn junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, pIn and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, ntub, ptub and twintub CMOS process.
Analog Circuits: Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier.Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: singleand multistage, differential and operational, feedback, and power. Frequency response of amplifiers.Simple opamp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; singletransistor and opamp configurations.Function generators and waveshaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.
Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flipflops, counters and shiftregisters. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories.
Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.
Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties ofLaplace transform, continuoustime and discretetime Fourier series, continuoustime and discretetime Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, ztransform. Sampling theorem. Linear TimeInvariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.
Control Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, RouthHurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots.
Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional IntegralDerivative (PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.
Communications: Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signaltonoise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential
pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.
Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems, Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S parameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cutoff frequencies; dispersion relations. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas;
radiation pattern; antenna gain.
Electronics and Communication Engineering (EC):
Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula,Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Transform Theory: Fourier transform,Laplace transform, Ztransform.
Electronics and Communication Engineering technical
Networks: Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems:
superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, WyeDelta transformation.Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations;time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplacetransform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2port network parameters: driving pointand transfer functions. State equations for networks.
Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers.pn junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, pIn and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, ntub, ptub and twintub CMOS process.
Analog Circuits: Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier.Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: singleand multistage, differential and operational, feedback, and power. Frequency response of amplifiers.Simple opamp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; singletransistor and opamp configurations.Function generators and waveshaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.
Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flipflops, counters and shiftregisters. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories.
Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.
Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties ofLaplace transform, continuoustime and discretetime Fourier series, continuoustime and discretetime Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, ztransform. Sampling theorem. Linear TimeInvariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.
Control Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, RouthHurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots.
Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional IntegralDerivative (PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.
Communications: Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signaltonoise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential
pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.
Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems, Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S parameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cutoff frequencies; dispersion relations. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas;
radiation pattern; antenna gain.
Nielit scientistB exam question paper pattern
National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology (NIELIT) recruits scientists from various branches every year, the selection process consists of written exam. The syllabus for this post was already given in my previous posts but here i am giving a flow chart of exam pattern which consists of both technical and non technical questions based on the syllabus.
Preparation Steps to Success in any competitive Exams
Now a days there is a more competition for any competitive exams.Here I am giving some important steps based on my experience to success in any competitive exams related to electronics like BSNL, IES, GATE, BARC, DRDO, ISRO, BHEL, BEL, GAIL, etc……..
Step1: First step is read the notification completely and if they mention any exam date in notification note down the exam date,If they didn’t mention the date then just assume that the exam will be held with in 2 month from the release of notification(now note down the expected/assumed exam date).
Step2: Now next step is to know the syllabus and exam pattern ,search the internet/website of company and take the printout of the syllabus.
Step3: Most important step is to find previous year question papers,Search internet or Buy previous papers books in a market or online.The previous papers are used to give an idea about the exam pattern and to know what type of questions are giving.
Step4: Now check the previous papers questions, are these questions are coming from syllabus or not.If any question is from outside of the syllabus then you just add that topic into syllabus.
Step5: Until Step4 we collect the sources to prepare for the exam.Now according to the exam date and based on your convenience you should prepare a preparation daily plan/Time table.
Step6: According to the Plan/Time table Start your preparation.Before reading any text book first check the previous questions concert to that subject/topic and observe what type of questions are giving, and which areas they covered most,so that its becomes easy to study and give more interest to study.
Step7: Don’t spend more time on reading theory text books,Instead of that practice more objective questions of all previous papers of competitive exams that gives good confidence and shows the way to success..
ONE WHO PRACTICE A LOT WILL DEFINETLY GET SUCCESS.
ALL THE BEST!!!!
Step1: First step is read the notification completely and if they mention any exam date in notification note down the exam date,If they didn’t mention the date then just assume that the exam will be held with in 2 month from the release of notification(now note down the expected/assumed exam date).
Step2: Now next step is to know the syllabus and exam pattern ,search the internet/website of company and take the printout of the syllabus.
Step3: Most important step is to find previous year question papers,Search internet or Buy previous papers books in a market or online.The previous papers are used to give an idea about the exam pattern and to know what type of questions are giving.
Step4: Now check the previous papers questions, are these questions are coming from syllabus or not.If any question is from outside of the syllabus then you just add that topic into syllabus.
Step5: Until Step4 we collect the sources to prepare for the exam.Now according to the exam date and based on your convenience you should prepare a preparation daily plan/Time table.
Step6: According to the Plan/Time table Start your preparation.Before reading any text book first check the previous questions concert to that subject/topic and observe what type of questions are giving, and which areas they covered most,so that its becomes easy to study and give more interest to study.
Step7: Don’t spend more time on reading theory text books,Instead of that practice more objective questions of all previous papers of competitive exams that gives good confidence and shows the way to success..
ONE WHO PRACTICE A LOT WILL DEFINETLY GET SUCCESS.
ALL THE BEST!!!!
AP PGECET Syllabus and previous papers for ece and eee
The main objective of PGECET is to identify at the state level, meritorious and motivated candidates who didn’t qualify in GATE exam for admission to Post Graduate programmes in Engineering and technology. PGCET exam is useful for the students who wants to take admissions in higher education. Here I am giving syllabus for APPGCET written exam for ECE and EEE.
PGECET examinations consist of each paper of 2 hours duration and carry a maximum of 120 marks.
Electronics & Communication Engineering:
Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals,Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals,Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor's and Laurent' series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, single and multistep methods for
differential equations.
differential equations.
Networks: Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton's maximum power transfer, WyeDelta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.
Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon:
diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. pn junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, pIn and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, ntub, ptub and twintub CMOS process.
diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. pn junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, pIn and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, ntub, ptub and twintub CMOS process.
Analog Circuits: Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers.Amplifiers: singleand multistage, differential and operational, feedback, and power. Frequency response of amplifiers. Simple opamp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; singletransistor and opamp configurations. Function generators and waveshaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.
Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL,TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders,PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flipflops, counters and shiftregisters. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories. Microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.
Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties of Laplace transform continuoustime and discretetime Fourier series, continuoustime and discretetime Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, ztransform. Sampling theorem. Linear TimeInvariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.
Control Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, RouthHurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots. Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of ProportionalIntegralDerivative (PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.
Communications: Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signaltonoise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.
Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss' and Stokes' theorems, Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S parameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cutoff frequencies;dispersion relations. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas; radiation pattern; antenna gain.
Electrical Engineering:
Mathematics: Similar to ECE syllabus.
Electric Circuits and Fields: Network graph, KCL, KVL, node and mesh analysis, transient response of dc and ac networks; sinusoidal steadystate analysis, resonance, basic filter concepts; ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin's, Norton's and Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, twoport networks, three phase circuits; Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions; Ampere's and BiotSavart's laws; inductance; dielectrics; capacitance.
Signals and Systems: Representation of continuous and discretetime signals; shifting and scaling operations; linear, timeinvariant and causal systems; Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals; sampling theorem; Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms.
Electrical Machines: Single phase transformer  equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency; three phase transformers  connections, parallel operation; autotransformer; energy conversion principles; DC machines  types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors; three phase induction motors  principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control; single phase induction motors; synchronous machines performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications;servo and stepper motors.
Power Systems: Basic power generation concepts; transmission line models and performance; cable
performance, insulation; corona and radio interference; distribution systems; perunit quantities; bus
impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control; power factor correction; economic operation;symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection; solid state relays and digital protection; circuit breakers; system stability concepts, swing curves and equal area criterion; HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts.
performance, insulation; corona and radio interference; distribution systems; perunit quantities; bus
impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control; power factor correction; economic operation;symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection; solid state relays and digital protection; circuit breakers; system stability concepts, swing curves and equal area criterion; HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts.
Control Systems: Principles of feedback; transfer function; block diagrams; steadystate errors; Routh and Niquist techniques; Bode plots; root loci; lag, lead and leadlag compensation; state space model; state transition matrix, controllability and observability.
Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Bridges and potentiometers; PMMC, moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments; measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; instrument transformers; digital voltmeters and multimeters; phase, time and frequency measurement; Qmeters; oscilloscopes; potentiometric recorders; error analysis.
Analog and Digital Electronics: Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET; amplifiers  biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers; operational amplifiers  characteristics and applications; simple active filters; VCOs and timers; combinational and sequential logic circuits; multiplexer; Schmitt trigger; multivibrators; sample and hold circuits; A/D and D/A converters; 8bit microprocessor basics, architecture, programming and interfacing.
Power Electronics and Drives: Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs  static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters  fully controlled and half controlled; principles of choppers and inverters; basis concepts of adjustable speed dc and ac drives.
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PGECET Previous papers
C language preparation for interview questions and best C books to learn
C language is the most important subject to get a job,Most of the core/software companies asked C language in both written and interview,Because C is the basic language to learn any language coding. Here I am discussing How to prepare C language and what type of books refer to learn c language easy.
First of all you should learn basics of C from any book of your own interest and practice all example programs given in the book. The best book which I recently learnt is Let us C by Yashavant Kanetkar,which teaches from basics with simple easily understandable language.
After successful completion of learning basics we should practice the programs in the system compiler to get full confidence on programs, TurboC is the basic easy compiler to compile and to check outputs of the program.To practice more in depth C programming example try to get the book exploring C by Yashavant Kanetkar, this book cover only C programs of different types.
Now download previous question papers of the companies either software or hardware,and practice those interview or written questions with different logics so,that its becomes easy to write any C program.
First of all you should learn basics of C from any book of your own interest and practice all example programs given in the book. The best book which I recently learnt is Let us C by Yashavant Kanetkar,which teaches from basics with simple easily understandable language.
After successful completion of learning basics we should practice the programs in the system compiler to get full confidence on programs, TurboC is the basic easy compiler to compile and to check outputs of the program.To practice more in depth C programming example try to get the book exploring C by Yashavant Kanetkar, this book cover only C programs of different types.
Now download previous question papers of the companies either software or hardware,and practice those interview or written questions with different logics so,that its becomes easy to write any C program.
Best C Language Text books To learn:
S.No 
Books

Description

1.  Let us C by Yashavant Kanetkar,which cover basic tutorial of c language useful for interviews and placement written exams.and this book contains some questions at the end of the chapter to practice for interview.you can buy it online.C programming book: let us c by kanetkar buy online  
2.  Let us c solutions by kanetkar,which gives solutions to the exercise questions of the above basic book. let us c yashwant kanetkar pdf free download. Let us C solutions 12th edition  
3.  Exploring C ebook by yashwant kanetkar free pdf download,this book covers programs with example solutions to test your c skills.you can buy this book online with low cost Exploring C by kanetkar buy online from flipkart  
4.  More books  For more books for entrance exams you can search here. Search Books 
Gate 2018 all India exam preparation tips to Crack the exam
Now a days GATE is becoming more popular Because from the year 2012 onwards Most of the PSU’S recruiting people through GATE score and students showing interest on higher education like M.Tech/M.S are increasing every year in India. It is easy to crack GATE exam (I cracked GATE –EC 2012 and I was studied in NIT) if you follow these simple steps. I already posted the details about GATE in my previous posts you can check it to know more.
Why GATE 2018 exam?
Because GATE exam is important to do M.Tech/M.S in Top universities like IIT’S,NIT’S ….Not only that its very important to get jobs in PSU’S like NTPC,BHEL,BEL,HPCL….and also every year BARC is recruiting scientists through GATE score so many peoples have a question that how much score is needed to get all these things??? I will clear this doubt in my future posts,today my topic is how to prepare for GATE.
Steps to Crack GATE easily:
1. Syllabus: Collect syllabus from GATE website or you can download from here.
2. Research on your knowledge: Check the syllabus and know about yourself, i.e how much knowledge depth you have in those subjects because all these subjects you have already learnt in your graduation and make a list of subjects you are poor and on which subjects you are good.
3. Check In how many subjects you are poor and good from the list which you have prepared.If you are not clear with basic subjects, its better to join in any good coaching centers or learn subjects online from NPTEL ,MITOCW websites. Now a days some coaching centers offering online classes too so if you have interest you can check their websites for more information.
4. Previous papers & Making a short Notes: If you have some knowledge in subjects and you want to learn more in depth you can also take classes online from NPTEL and MIT those offering these courses for free and also follow at least two standard text books for each subject. Before studying any subject once check previous GATE papers and note down the areas on which questions are asked. First choose the subject which you are poor, while studying or learning focus more on those areas in which they are asking questions and note down the important points in a separate notes it will useful to refer before the exam.
5.Practice makes Man perfect: After studying one subject you need to practice previous questions of the respective subject from GATE and IES papers you can download these papers online or you buy it from market/online .
Why IES papers,sometimes in GATE exam they give direct one mark questions from these IES papers so you need to practice those papers also to differentiate your gate score from others.Practice more and more problems to crack gate easily.
6. Have a faith in your self: Without self motivation and self believe, no one in this world can achieve anything. Its tough to crack gate if you don’t have any plan or time table.Normally 3 to 4 months of serious study will be sufficient for the preparation so prepare your own time table now.
7.Test series: After completing your preparation take some online test series exams conducted by some institutes(like Gate Forum) that will helpful to know your preparation and also it gives confidence to the final GATE exam.
Ecatn Tags: GATE 2018 , gate syllabus, gate previous papers, Gate tips for ece, gate preparation steps
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