Gate 2019 all India exam preparation tips to Crack the exam

CaptureNow a days GATE is becoming more popular Because from the year 2012 onwards Most of the PSU’S recruiting people through GATE score  and students showing interest on higher education like M.Tech/M.S are increasing every year in India. It is  easy to crack GATE exam (I cracked GATE –EC 2012 and I was studied in NIT) if you follow these simple steps. I already posted the details about GATE in my previous posts you can check it to know more.

Why GATE 2019 exam?
Because GATE exam is important to do M.Tech/M.S  in Top universities like IIT’S,NIT’S ….Not only that its very important to get jobs in PSU’S  like NTPC,BHEL,BEL,HPCL….and also every year BARC is recruiting scientists through GATE score so many peoples have a question that how much score is needed to get all these things??? I will clear this doubt in my future posts,today my topic is how to prepare for GATE.

Steps to Crack GATE easily:

1. Syllabus: Collect syllabus from  GATE website or you can download from here.

2. Research on your knowledge: Check the syllabus and know about yourself, i.e how much knowledge depth you have in those subjects because all these subjects you have  already learnt in your graduation and make a list of  subjects you are poor and on which subjects you are good.

3. Check In how many subjects you are poor and good from the list which you have prepared.If you are not clear with basic subjects, its better to join in any good coaching centers or learn subjects online from NPTEL ,MITOCW websites. Now a days some coaching centers offering online classes too so if you have  interest you can check their websites for more information.

4. Previous papers & Making a short Notes: If you have some knowledge in subjects and you want to learn more in depth you can also take classes online from NPTEL and MIT those offering these courses for free and also follow at least two standard text books for each subject. Before studying any subject once check previous GATE papers and note down the areas on which questions are asked. First choose the subject which you are poor, while studying or learning focus more on those areas in which they are asking questions and note down the important points in a separate notes it will useful to refer before the exam.

5.Practice makes Man perfect: After studying one subject you need to practice previous questions of the respective subject from GATE and IES papers you can download these papers online or you buy it from market/online .

Why IES papers,sometimes in GATE exam they give direct one mark questions from these IES papers so you need to practice those papers also to differentiate your gate score from others.Practice more and more problems to crack gate easily.

6. Have a faith in your self: Without self motivation and self believe, no one in this world can achieve anything. Its tough to crack gate if you don’t have any plan or time table.Normally 3 to 4 months of serious study will be sufficient for the preparation so prepare your own time table now.

7.Test series: After completing your preparation take some online test series exams conducted by some institutes(like Gate Forum) that will helpful to know your preparation and also it gives confidence to the final GATE exam.

BARC 2019 exam Syllabus and exam pattern for Electronics and communications(ECE)

BARC(baba atomic research center) is a premier multi-disciplinary Nuclear Research Centre of India works on atomic and nuclear field, this is the one of the challenging work for an engineers who really interested to work in atomic field.

The OCES/DGFS electronics written exam paper is totally technical questions and The level of the question paper is similar to the GATE paper but not much tough as GATE. Prepare a plan to study, don’t concentrate more on studying text books, Do more work on Objective bits and concentrate more on previous papers of GATE,IES,JTO,..etc whatever previous technical question paper you have do it first, I will post more articles on how to prepare for competitive exam later on. one who works on bits can easily qualify in written exam. This paper consists of both theoretical and problematic questions. 

There is no specific syllabus given by BARC we are expecting more questions from the below topics. The exam Paper may contains 100 question (2 hours duration) only Technical questions there is no general questions. The most of the questions will come from Analog and digital electronics, electromagnetic and microwave, Communication(analog & digital),control systems, Signal and systems, Microprocessor, Computer organization,Network theory. 

  1. analog electronics: Most of the questions will come from OP-AMP, feedback amplifiers, oscillators, amplifiers, diode equation, zener diode, A-D and D-A converters. 
  2. digital electronics: K-map, Combinational( Mutiplexer, encoder, decoder, basic logic circuits) and sequential circuits(flip-flops, registers, counters).  
  3. electromagnetic: Maxwell’s equations, Electromagnetic wave propagations, transmission lines, microwave.  
  4. communications: AM, FM, PM, PCM, DM, FSK, QPSK, PAM, PPM, noise, ISI, probability of errors,   
  5. control systems: Stability, steady state response, transient response, compensators, Root locus, bode plot. 
  6. signal and systems: signal basics, system basics, Fourier transform, laplace transform, z-transform.
  7.  network theory: nodal analysis , mesh analysis, theorems(thevinens, nortons, max power theorem, superposition), two port networks. 
  8. microprocessor: mainly they will ask 8085 basics and small programs.

Practice all previous GATE questions,IES, JTO, etc... don't believe this is the exact BARC syllabus fully some what we are expecting finally i suggest you to just followthe  total GATE syllabus.


ISRO syllabus for electronics and communication(ECE) 2019

ISRO Scientist-B recruitment exam syllabus 2019:

The syllabus is similar to ECE GATE syllabus,we should prefer GATE and IES electronics syllabus for any competitive exams, In isro written exam some questions will be asked from computer engineering which is not in Gate syllabus, here I am giving basic syllabus based on previous papers,You can also see the previous isro papers here.

(1) Electronic Devices and ICs:      
Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in
silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-I-n and avalanche photodiode, integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.
   
Straightforward problems are only asked, which can be solved with basic concepts in diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET(less important). Expect theory questions also from other topics. 

(2) Signals and Systems:
Classification of signals and systems; System modeling in terms of differential and difference equations; Fourier series; Fourier transforms and their application to system analysis; Laplace transforms and their application to system analysis; Convolution and superposition integrals and their applications; Z-transforms and their applications to the analysis and characterization of discrete time systems; Random signals and probability; Correlation functions; Spectral density; Response of linear system to random inputs.
(3) Network Theory:
Network analysis techniques; Network theorems, transient response, steady state sinusoidal response; Network graphs and their applications in network analysis; Tellegen's theorem. Two port networks; Z, Y, h and transmission parameters. Combination of two ports, analysis of common two ports.
(4) Electromagnetic Theory:
Analysis of electrostatic and magneto-static fields; Laplace's and Poisson's equations; Boundary value problems and their solutions; Maxwell's equations; application to wave propagation in bounded and unbounded media; Transmission lines: basic theory, standing waves, matching applications, Elements of antenna theory and microwave basics.

Expect majority questions from this topic. Study this topic really well, as many theory questions and problems are asked from this. Many questions from microwave is asked which is out of syllabus for gate. Study satellite communication link design and antenna theory also. Questions from topics which we don’t usually find important for GATE can come.

(5) Analog Electronic Circuits:
Transistor biasing and stabilization. Small signal analysis. Power amplifiers. Frequency. response. Wide banding techniques. Feedback amplifiers. Tuned amplifiers. Oscillators, Rectifiers and power supplies. Op Amp, 555 timer, PLL, other applications. Pulse shaping circuits and waveform generators.

Mainly circuits with BJT and OPAMPS only asked. Also learn Rectifiers with zener diode
 
(6) Digital Electronic Circuits:
Boolean algebra, simplification of Boolean function Karnaugh map and applications; IC Logic gates and their characteristics; IC logic families: DTL, TTL, ECL, NMOS, PMOS and CMOS gates and their comparison; Combinational logic circuits; Half adder, Full adder; Digital comparator; Multiplexer De-multiplexer; ROM and their applications. Flip-flops. R-S, J-K, D and T flip-tops; Different types of counters and registers. Waveform generators. A/D and D/A converters.

Lot of very straight forward questions asked. So brush up everything and study A/D converters which is not that important for gate.
(7) Control Systems:
Transient and steady state response of control systems; Effect of feedback on stability and sensitivity; Root locus techniques; Frequency response analysis. Concepts of gain and phase margins; Constant-M and Constant-N Nichol's Chart; Approximation of transient response from Constant-N Nichol's Chart; Approximation of transient response from closed loop frequency response; Design of Control Systems; Compensators; Industrial controllers.

Very few questions are asked, that too straight forward negative feedback question, system response etc. and related to concepts in root locus and other graphical methods
(8) Communication Systems:
Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density
function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.

Compared to gate syllabus, this is having lot of advanced topics. Study each and every heading in this. Anything can be asked (mostly direct but expect little tricky questions here). Even questions from coding theory have been asked even though not in GATE syllabus.
 
(9) Computer Engineering:
Number Systems. Data representation; Programming; Elements of a high level programming language PASCAL/C; Use of basic data structures; Fundamentals of computer architecture; Processor design; Control unit design; Memory organization, I/o System Organization. Microprocessors: Architecture and instruction set of Microprocessor's 8085 and 8086, Assembly language Programming. Microprocessor Based system design: typical examples. Personal computers and their typical uses.

This topic you will find difficult to study, as it is not for GATE and from previous year paper it is not easy for pin pointing even the correct syllabus. Many topics electronics students are not studying(mostly computer science people only knows the answers so get their help in finding answers in the previous year papers). Better don’t waste too much time in this. Study only basic concepts in computer networks, computer organization and microprocessor (study if you have done it as part of university syllabus and leave the more advanced topics in this and devote more time on to gate syllabus part)


GATE syllabus for ece 2019 ( IIT Madras updated syllabus)

gate syllabus
Gate is one of the competitive exams in India to took engineering PG-M.tech or M.S or PhD admission in top most colleges like IIT, NIT, Top universities, Bits Pilani and it also used to get a job in PSU’S.

This year GATE 2019 is going to organised by IIT Madras, The official notification and syllabus are going to release soon.

 Here I am giving latest GATE 2019  exam syllabus for Electronics and Communication Engineering(ECE) which we are expecting similar to gate 2018 syllabus Practice from now onwards to clear and Get good score.


Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, eigen values and eigen vectors, rank, solution of linear equations – existence and uniqueness.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series.
Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, methods of solution using variation of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations, variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems.
Vector Analysis: Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss's, Green's and Stoke's theorems.
Complex Analysis: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Cauchy's integral formula; Taylor's and Laurent's series, residue theorem.
Numerical Methods: Solution of nonlinear equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations, convergence criteria.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; combinatorial probability, probability distribution functions - binomial, Poisson, exponential and normal; Joint and conditional probability; Correlation and regression analysis.

Section 2: Networks, Signals and Systems

Network solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis; Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s, maximum power transfer; Wye‐Delta transformation; Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors; Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transform; Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; Linear 2‐port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions; State equations for networks.

Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform representations, sampling theorem and applications; Discrete-time signals: discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Z-transform, interpolation of discrete-time signals; LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design techniques.

Section 3: Electronic Devices

Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon; Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity; Generation and recombination of carriers; Poisson and continuity equations; P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell; Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography and twin-tub CMOS process.

Section 4: Analog Circuits

Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers; Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response; BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multi-stage, differential, feedback, power and operational; Simple op-amp circuits; Active filters; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single-transistor and op-amp configurations; Function generators, wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers; Voltage reference circuits; Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation.

Section 5: Digital Circuits

Number systems; Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs; Sequential circuits: latches and flip‐flops, counters, shift‐registers and finite state machines; Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs; Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM;
8-bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Section 6: Control Systems

Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.

Section 7: Communications

Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.

Section 8: Electromagnetics

Electrostatics; Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth; Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart; Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations; Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays; Basics of radar; Light propagation in optical fibers.




Best Railway and Defense Jobs for ECE Fresher engineers

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There is a lot of career option in railway and defense for electronics and communications after completion of B.tech degree.To get higher posts jobs in Railway and defense we have to write IES,RRB,AIRCAFT,INDIAN NAVY EXAM. Every year they release notification  to recruit candidates so please check their website for more details.

Railway Jobs for B.Tech ECE

(i) Indian Railway Service of Signal Engineers.
(ii) Indian Railway Stores Service (Telecommunication/ Electronics Engineering Posts).
(iii) Section engineer
(iv) Junior Engineer

These four Posts are the higher category Jobs in railways for B.E/B.tech graduates.

To get those jobs we have to write IES and RRB exams,

For first two posts we have to write IES/ESE(indian engineering service / Engineering service examination) exam and

for third and fourth posts we have to write RRB(railway recruitment board) exam for section/junior engineers.

IES notification is given on every year but,

 RRB release notification only once in 2-3 years.

The Entry Exams and posts for ECE to join in Defence service

(i) Indian Naval Armament Service (Electronics Engineering Posts)
(ii) Assistant Executive Engineer Group 'A' (Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering Posts) in the Corps of E.M.E., Ministry of Defence.
(iii) Assistant Naval Stores Officer Grade-I (Electronics & Telecom Engineering Posts) in Indian Navy.
(v) Asst. Commandant in Indian army
(vi) TGC (Engineers) in Indian army
(vii) UES(University Entry Scheme):Final and Pre Final Year Students can apply.
(vii) CDS(combined defense service):which is used to join in any defense academy This exam is conducted by UPSC.
(viii) NDA (National Defence Academy) conducted by UPSC to join in defense service.
(ix) DRDO scientist jobs  which will mainly works on defense area,you can choose path in this area also.

For first three posts you have to write IES exam

for fourth post AFCAT is a common Entrance test for Flying Branch, Technical Branch, Ground Duty officer You need to be 60% aggregate in all your Years in graduation and

fifth post Asst. commandant we need to write written exam for the taking the 39th Short Service Commission for (Technical) course and 10th Short Service Commission (Technical) Women course.

For all these posts we need to have B.tech degree with 60% aggregate. Every year they releases notification to recruit  candidate for the above posts.


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6 Best ECE certificate training courses to get an opportunities in core companies

ece courses
So many ECE studying or completed engineering graduated people has confusion in mind that what type of the courses has to be taken to get a job in core sectors companies?

I hope, From this article your confusion will be clear about technical short term diploma courses which will useful to place in some core companies.

Learn these courses practically instead of theoretical for that you should choose an institute which gives you a more practical knowledge.


1. Digital and Analog VLSI Design :

In present technology revolution, in every electronic products like mobiles,computers,tablets, so on.. contains a chip which are based on VLSI technology. Let us take a big company INTEL which mainly focus on designing microprocessor chips which is used in computers with different clock speeds. To design those type of  chips for consumer electronics, medical electronics, communication, aero-space, computers etc.  they required highly skilled individuals is needed to meet this demand. So, this is the one of the highly demanded course which will useful to get in to the VLSI/ASIC design companies.


2. Embedded Systems :

In our daily life, we use so many mechanical and electronic devices to make our work faster and easier like washing machine, lifts, escalator, pagers, micro ovens,etc.. so to do those works we need some processors which works for only a particular applications i.e like washing machine which only used to wash the clothes.To develop those type of applications we need to embedded some logical programs in processors which is written in the basic embedded program which is similar to C language. so to develop those type of applications most of the IT companies need engineers who have sound knowledge in hardware and software design.

Now a days the companies are more concentrate on the Internet of Things(IOT), It is one of the best course to get into a core companies, for this you have to learn Aurdino.

3. Computer Networking and System Security

We all know how the internet is useful for us to know the information from all around the world. let us take “Facebook” a social networking sites which we are using daily and spending lot of time to connect with the other peoples but, have you ever think what happened when you open any website URL like www.facebook.com in your chrome or Mozilla Firefox or internet explorer(IE) browsers, as we are an engineers we have to think creatively “I believe engineers are only the creator in every industry”.Did you think what happened on backside of browser?Think!!. Back end there is a lot of protocols will run till the page opens completely , read any computer network book to know what is happening in internet world.
I am giving a small example component which is useful in networking i.e router which is used to route the packets from source node to destination node,here I am not going deep discussion about router if you want to know more about it learn from Google or any text book. Router is a physical device which consists of processor which was designed by VLSI peoples but they just design according to our requirements and networking engineers only know how to route packets efficiently in to the network for that they implements some routing algorithms and they designs the network based on requirements not only for that purpose they are used to secure the information in the network.
Cisco is one of the leading producer of routers, and  so many companies need network engineers to design the network and to secure the information from threats. Networking & System Security is to address the industry needs of security aware network and system administrators.


4. Wireless networks/Telecom:

As we know how the telecom or wireless industries are growing fast as the usability of the wireless equipment by the user is growing.so,to meet the user standards these companies required talented peoples in these domain.

5. Digital signal processing applications: 

 It has also an equal importance in the industry to embedded systems.Here this course used to develop some signal processing applications.

6. PLC/SCADA/DCS :

I don’t have much knowledge on this course, but now a days its also becoming popular read more about this in the Hindu article

Best NTPC diploma trainee exam books (100% Job Guarantee)

Here you will find the list of objective book for preparing NTPC diploma trainee exam, by practising these books you will get some confidence to clear the exam.

Technical section:

1. 

This book is useful to learn and practice basic questions,Some of the topics explained in this book are Applied Physics, Basic Electricity, Instrumentation and Measurements, and Electronic Analog Circuits which are most important in all competitive exams.


2. 


This book useful for all competitive exams for electrical engineering background, the concepts included are 
1. Basic Electrical Engineering
2. A. C. Circuit
3. D.C. Generator and D. C. Motors
4. Illumination
5. Electrical Heating and Welding
6. Electrolysis and Storage Batteries
7. Alternator
8. Power Plant Engineering
9. Instruments and Measurements
10. Control System
11. Industrial Drives
12. Model set of papers



 Aptitude and reasoning section

I already posted the best books for aptitude and reasoning for competitive exams, check our post

NTPC Diploma trainee syllabus for ECE and EEE

CaptureNTPC recruits Diploma candidates every year, the selection process consists of the online written test followed by Interview, here we are going to give you the details of syllabus for the branch Control and Instrumentation, Electrical.
The ECE peoples can also apply in C&I disciple.



The test will be in two parts. Part-I will be Knowledge Test and will consist of 70 multiple-choice questions of respective discipline.

Part-I:(Technical)
For Electronics:
Most of the questions will ask from

  • Electronics and devices,
  • Digital electronics,
  •  Microprocessor,
  • Communications,
  • Electronics Instrumentations,
  • Signal and systems,
  • Basics of mathematics,
  • Control systems,
  • Electromagnetic fields.
  • Computer Networks

For Electrical:

  • Power systems,
  • Basics of Electronics ,
  • Electrical Circuits & Analysis ,
  • Electrical Instruments & Measurements,
  • Electrical Machines,
  • Power Electronics,
  • Control systems,
  • basics of mathematics. 


Part-II will be Aptitude Test and will consist of 50 multiple-choice questions on


There will be 1/4th mark will be deducted for each wrong / multiple answered question.The Technical syllabus is not given by NTPC company that one expected by us based on previous papers to give an idea to you.

Nowadays most of the competitive exams are conducting written exam online, so practice and prepare your self through our new website: www.eqans.com


Important Topics in Aptitude and reasoning for placements and competitive exams

aptitude preparation
Quantitative Aptitude is very important subject to test your problem solving skills. so, in every competitive written exam they asked questions from this subject, not only in written they may asked some brain storming puzzles in interview also. It is the one of the key concept to qualify written exam almost every students who know basic mathematics can solve most of the questions in the exam but the main problem is that the time management,the recruiters does not give enough time to solve the problems so one who has more practice the model questions before exam can easily solve in the exams.
                I already discussed some good books for practicing aptitude,Reasoning and puzzles before,in that R.S.Agarwal quantitative aptitude book is sufficient for most of the exam in both government and private sectors and also it useful for campus placement preparation.Here I want to tell some of the main important topics you must practice more for placements and any competitive exams.
             Almost every topic is important,in exams they have a rights to ask any thing from any topic to filter the candidates. we must practice all topics,but we must concentrate more depth in some topics what I am discussing here because those topics are some what confusing and time taking so,to solve those problems in exams quickly we need more practice and mostly 70% of the questions will asked from these areas only.
           The topics we must concentrate more are 
Reasoning:  
           For placement or private company exam preparation we need to practice more questions because they will ask some question as the level of CAT exam.

In order to prepare online, prepare from our new site : www.eqans.com

Important objective questions for vlsi core companies


1. VLSI technology uses ________ to form integrated circuit
a) transistors
b) switches
c) diodes
d) buffers

2. Medium scale integration has
a) ten logic gates
b) fifty logic gates
c) hundred logic gates
d) thousands logic gates

3. The difficulty in achieving high doping concentration leads to
a) error in concentration
b) error in variation
c) error in doping
d) distrubution error

4. _________ is used to deal with effect of variation
a) chip level technique
b) logic level technique
c) switch level technique
d) system level technique

5. As die size shrinks, the complexity of making the photomasks
a) increases
b) decreases
c) remains the same
d) cannot be determined

6. ______ architecture is used to design VLSI
a) system on a device
b) single open circuit
c) system on a chip
d) system on a circuit

7. The design flow of VLSI system is
1. architecture design 2. market requirement 3. logic design 4. HDL coding
a) 2-1-3-4
b) 4-1-3-2
c) 3-2-1-4
d) 1-2-3-4

8. ______ is used in logic design of VLSI
a) LIFO
b) FIFO
c) FILO
d) LILO

9. Which provides higher integration density?
a) switch transistor logic
b) transistor buffer logic
c) transistor transistor logic
d) circuit level logic

10. Physical and electrical specification is given in
a) architectural design
b) logic design
c) system design
d) functional design

11. Which is the high level representation of VLSI design
a) problem statement
b) logic design
c) HDL program
d) functional design

12. Gate minimization technique is used to simplify the logic.
a) true
b) false

13. The condition for linear region is
a) Vgs lesser than Vt
b) Vgs greater than Vt
c) Vds lesser than Vgs
d) Vds greater than Vgs

14. As source drain voltage increases, channel depth
a) increases
b) decreases
c) logarithmically increases
d) exponentially increases

15. Electronics are characterized by
a) low cost
b) low weight and volume
c) reliability
d) all of the mentioned

16.  Speed power product is measured as the product of
a) gate switching delay and gate power dissipation
b) gate switching delay and gate power absorption
c) gate switching delay and net gate power
d) gate power dissipation and absorption

17. nMOS devices are formed in
a) p-type substrate of high doping level
b) n-type substrate of low doping level
c) p-type substrate of moderate doping level
d) n-type substrate of high doping level

18.  Source and drain in nMOS device are isolated by
a) a single diode
b) two diodes
c) three diodes
d) four diodes

19. In depletion mode, source and drain are connected by
a) insulating channel
b) conducing channel
c) Vdd
d) Vss

20. The condition for non saturated region is
a) Vds = Vgs – Vt
b) Vgs lesser than Vt
c) Vds lesser than Vgs – Vt
d) Vds greater than Vgs – Vt

21.  In enhancement mode, device is in _________ condition
a) conducting
b) non conducting
c) partially conducting
d) insulating

22. The condition for non conducting mode is
a) Vds lesser than Vgs
b) Vgs lesser than Vds
c) Vgs = Vds = 0
d) Vgs = Vds = Vs = 0

23.  nMOS is
a) donor doped
b) acceptor doped
c) all of the mentioned
d) none of the mentioned

24. MOS transistor structure is
a) symmetrical
b) non symmetrical
c) semi symmetrical
d) pseudo symmetrical

25. pMOS is
a) donor doped
b) acceptor doped
c) all of the mentioned
d) none of the mentioned

26. Inversion layer in enhancement mode consists of excess of
a) positive carriers
b) negative carriers
c) both in equal quantity
d) neutral carriers

27. CMOS technology is used in developing
a) microprocessors
b) microcontrollers
c) digital logic circuits
d) all of the mentioned

28.CMOS has
a) high noise margin
b) high packing density
c) high power dissipation
d) high complexity

29. In CMOS fabrication, nMOS and pMOS are integrated in same substrate.
a) true
b) false

30. P-well is created on
a) p subtrate
b) n substrate
c) p & n substrate
d) none of the mentioned

31. Oxidation process is carried out using
a) hydrogen
b) low purity oxygen
c) sulphur
d) nitrogen

32. Photoresist layer is formed using
a) high sensitive polymer
b) light sensitive polymer
c) polysilicon
d) silicon di oxide

33. In CMOS fabrication,the photoresist layer is exposed to
a) visible light
b) ultraviolet light
c) infra red light
d) fluorescent

34. Few parts of photoresist layer is removed by using
a) acidic solution
b) neutral solution
c) pure water
d) diluted water

35. P-well doping concentration and depth will affect the
a) threshold voltage
b) Vss
c) Vdd
d) Vgs

36. Which type of CMOS circuits are good and better?
a) p well
b) n well
c) all of the mentioned
d) none of the mentioned

37. N-well is formed by
a) decomposition
b) diffusion
c) dispersion
d) filtering

38. _______ is sputtered on the whole wafer
a) silicon
b) calcium
c) potassium
d) aluminium

39. Lithography is:
a) Process used to transfer a pattern to a layer on the chip
b) Process used to develop an oxidation layer on the chip
c) Process used to develop a metal layer on the chip
d) Process used to produce the chip

40. Silicon oxide is patterned on a substrate using:
a) Physical lithography
b) Photolithography
c) Chemical lithography
d) Mechanical lithography