National institute of electronics & information tech syllabus for electronics

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Nieit 2013 syllabus for electronics and communications for the post of Scientist-B.

Electronics and Communication Engineering (EC):
Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula,Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.
Transform Theory: Fourier transform,Laplace transform, Z-transform.

 Electronics and Communication Engineering technical

Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems:
superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation.Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations;time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplacetransform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2-port network parameters: driving pointand transfer functions. State equations for networks.
Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers.p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-I-n and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.
Analog Circuits: Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier.Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: single-and multi-stage, differential and operational, feedback, and power. Frequency response of amplifiers.Simple op-amp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations.Function generators and wave-shaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.
Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories.
Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.
Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties ofLaplace transform, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, z-transform. Sampling theorem. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.
Control Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots.
Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional- Integral-Derivative (PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.
Communications: Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential
pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.
Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems, Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S parameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas;
radiation pattern; antenna gain.

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2012-2013 GATE Cut-off scores for BHEL

The Gate score cutoff list for BHEL ET-2012-2013 recruitment,to get a call for an interview.Minimum score required for 2013-2014 is may or may not same it depends upon number of vacancies, if your score is above these just prepare for an interview..
Discipline/Category wise GATE-2012 Score ( out of 1000) cutoff for shortlisting for interview.

Branch General OBC SC ST
Electronics 897 801 657 507
Electrical 821 713 563 515
Mechanical 739 645 518 442
PH candidates are shortlisted by accordingly 20 % relaxation in the cut-off of their respective category.

See also: GATE-2013 BHEL cutoff score for ET-2013


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BSNL TTA(Telecom Technical Assistant) exam syllabus 2013

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indexBsnl TTA exam 2013 recruitment syllabus, The standard of paper in General ability test will be such as may be expected of an Engineering Diploma holder. The standard of papers in other subjects will be approximately be that of Diploma level of Indian Polytechnic. There shall be single multiple choice objective type Paper of 3 hours duration as per details given below:-



Time allowed



:General ability test




:Basic Engineering


3 hours






Note: The candidate is required to obtain minimum qualifying marks in each of these parts as may be prescribed by the BSNL.

Detailed Syllabus


The candidate’s comprehension and understanding of General English shall be tested through simple exercise such as provision of antonyms and synonyms, fill in the blanks and multiple-choice exercises etc. This shall also include questions on current events, general knowledge and such matters of everyday observation and experience as may be expected of Diploma holder.


Detailed Syllabus is as under:

1. Applied Mathematics: Co-ordinate Geometry; Vector Algebras, Matrix and Determinant ; Differential calculus ; Integral calculus, Differential equation of second order; Fourier Series; Laplace Transform; Complex Number; Partial Differentiation.

2. Applied Physics: Measurement-Units and Dimensions; Waves, Acoustics, Ultrasonic; Light; Laser and its Applications; Atomic Structure and Energy Levels.

3. Basic Electricity: Electrostatics, coulomb’s law, Electric field, Gauss’s theorem, concept of potential difference; concept of capacitance and capacitors; Ohm ‘s law, power energy, Kirchoff’s voltage and current laws and their applications in simple DC circuits; Basic Magnetism; Electro Magnetism; Electromagnetic induction; Concept of alternating voltage & current; cells and Batteries ; Voltage and Current Sources; Thevenin’s theorem, Norton’s theorem and their applications.

4. Electronics Devices and Circuits: Classification of materials into conductor ,semi conductor, insulator etc. electrical properties, magnetic materials, various types of relays, switches and connectors. Conventional representation of electric and electronic circuit elements. Active and Passive components; semi conductors Physics; Semi Conductor Diode; Bipolar Transistor & their circuits; Transistor Biasing & Stabilization of operating point; Single stage transistor amplifier; field effect transistor, Mosfet circuit applications.

Multistage Transistor Amplifier; Transistor Audio Power Amplifiers; Feedback in Amplifier; Sinusoidal Oscillators; tuned Voltage Amplifier; Opto Electronics Devices and their applications; Operational Amplifier; wave shaping and switching circuits.

Block diagram of I.C timer(such as 555) and its working; Multivibrator circuits; Time base circuits; Thyristors and UJT; Regulated Power Supply.

5. Digital Techniques: Applications and advantages of digital systems; number system(binary and hexadecimal); Logic Gates; Logic Simplification; Codes and Parity; Arithmetic Circuits; Decoders. Display Devices and Associated Circuits; Multiplexers and De-multiplexers; Latches and Flip Flops; Counters; Shift Register; Memories; A/D and D/A converters.


Detailed Syllabus is as under:

1. Electrical: 3 phase vs single phase supply, Star Delta Connections, relation between phase & line voltage, power factor and their measurements; construction and principles of working of various types of electrical measuring instruments, all types of motor and generator-AC & DC transformers, starters, rectifiers, invertors, battery charges, batteries, servo and stepper motors, contactor control circuits, switch gear, relays, protection devices & schemes, substation, protection relaying, circuit breaker, generator protection, transformer protection, feeder & lightening protection, feeder & bus bar protection, lightening arrestor, earthing, voltage stabilizer & regulators, power control devices & circuits, phase controlled rectifiers, invertors, choppers, dual converters, cyclo converters; power electronics application in control of drivers, refrigeration & air conditioning.

2. Communication: Modulation and demodulations-principles and operation of various types of AM, FM and PM modulators/demodulators; pulse modulation-TDM,PAM,PPM,PWM; Multiplexing, Principles and applications of PCM.

Induction of Basic block diagram of digital and data communication system; coding error detection and correction techniques; Digital Modulation Techniques-ASK,ICW,FSK,SK; Characteristics/working of data transmission circuits; UART,USART; Modems; Protocols and their functions, brief idea of ISDN interfaces, local area Network; Carrier telephony-Features of carrier telephone system.

Microwave Engineering; Microwave Devices; Waveguides; Microwave Components; Microwave antennas; Microwave Communication System-Block diagram & working principles of microwave communication link.

3. Network, Filters and Transmission Lines: Two point network, Attenuator; Filters; Transmission Lines and their applications; characteristic impedance of line; concept of reflection and standing waves on transmission line; Transmission line equation; Principle of impedance matching; Bandwidth consideration of transmission line.

4. Instruments and Measurements: Specification of instruments-accuracy, precision, sensitivity, resolution range. Error in measurement and loading effect; Principles of voltage, current and resistance measurement; Transducers, measurement of displacement & strain, force & torque measuring devices, flow of measuring devices, power control devices & circuits. Types of AC milli voltmeters-Amplifier rectifier amplifier: Block diagram explanation of a basic CRO and a triggered sweep oscilloscope, front panel controls; Impedance Bridges and Q-Meters.

Principles of working and specification of logic probes, signal analyzer and logic analyzer, signal generator, distortion factor meter, spectrum analyzer.

5. Control Systems: Basic elements of control system , open and closed loop system, concepts of feedback. Block diagram of control system, Time lag, hysterisis linearity concepts; Self regulating and non self regulating control systems. Transfer function of simple control components, single feedback configuration.

Time response of systems.

Stability Analysis; Characteristics equation. Routh’s table, Nyquist Criterion, Relative stability, phase margin and gain margin.

Robin Harwitz criterion; Root Locus technique, Bode plot, Polar plot, gain margin and phase margin.

6. Microprocessors: Typical organization of microcomputer system and functions of its various blocks, Architecture of a Microprocessor; Memories and I/O Interfacing; Brief idea of M/C & assembly languages, Machines and Mnemonic codes; Instructions format and Addressing mode; concept Instruction set; programming exercises in assembly language; concept of interrupt; Data transfer techniques-sync data transfer, async data transfer, interrupt driven data transfer, DMA, serial output data, serial input data.

7. Computer: Computers and its working, types of computers, familiarization with DOS and window-concept of file, directory, folder, Number Systems; Data Communication. Programming-Elements of a high level programming language, PASCAL, C; use of basic data structures; Fundamentals of computer architecture, Processor design, control unit design; Memory organization. I/O System Organization. Microprocessor-microprocessor architecture, instruction set and simple assembly level programming. Microprocessor based system design: typical examples. Personal computers and their typical uses, data communication principles, types and working principles of modems, Network principles, OSI model, functions of data link layer and network layer, networking components; communication protocol-x.25, TCP/IP.

Database Management System-basic concepts, entity relationship model, relational

model, DBMS based on relational model.

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What is Indian engineering service examination??

Untitled-1This is the one of the recruitment service in india to recruit students/persons from four engineering department(electronics and telecommunication, mechanical, electrical,and civil engineering) in government sectors.This is the one challenging and good job to the person who looking for higher post(grade-A & grade-B) in government engineering sectors.They releases a notification every year in the month of Feb/march endings we can also check the notification detail in UPSC calendar in the upsc website(
Various government posts present in electronics and tele-communication department(Group-A & Group-B) are:
  1. Indian railway service of signalling engineers.
  2. Indian railway store service.
  3. Indian naval armament service.
  4. Assistant execuitive engineer Group-A in the corps of E.M.E, ministry of defence.
  5. Central power engineering service Group-A.
  6. Engineer(GCS-Gr-A) in wireless planing and co-ordination wing/monitoing organisation.(M/o Communications & I.T., D/o Telecommunications).
  7. Assistant Naval stores officer Grade-1 in indian anvy
  8. Indian Supply service, Group-A
  9. Indian Telecommunication services Gr-A
  10. Indian Ordinance Factories Service AWM/JTS.
  11. Junior telecom Officer(Group-B Gazetted)
  12. Central Power Engineering services Gr-B
Now to get in to these post first you must Qualify written Exam and Interview, Written Exam consists of  five papers and the exam will conduct on 3 days.
paper-1 General studies
Paper-2 Objective technical(6 subjects)
Paper-3 Objective technical(6 subjects)
Paper-4 Descriptive technical(6 subjects)
Paper-5 Descriptive Technical(6 subjects)
Each paper consists of 200 marks and the interview is of 200 marks totally 1200 marks.we have to clear all these rounds to enter in to government posts mentioned above and It is easy to clear IES if you have a good preparation plan and you must prepare at least 6months,So we should plan from now onwards ,if you need any help contact us. I will post syllabus and books for IES on later.


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BARC gate cutoff score in 2013-2014

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Engineering Branch Gate Score cutoff
Electronics engineering 689
Mechanical engineering 570
Electrical engineering 574
Computer science 704
Civil engineering 630
Metallurgy 379
Chemical 440
Instrumentation 563

Barc gate cutoff scores for engineering branches,check the website for more details:

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A mini robot powered by your smart phone TED video

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Your smartphone may feel like a friend -- but a true friend would give you a smile once in a while. At TED2013, Keller Rinaudo demos Romo, the smartphone-powered mini robot who can motor along with you on a walk, slide you a cup of coffee across the table, and react to you with programmable expressions.

Keller Rinaudo is the co-founder and CEO of Romotive -- makers of the small, covetable robot, Romo.   Full bio in TED »

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MNIT summer training programme on VLSI and EMBEDEDE sys for ECE

The Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering is organizing a summer training programme on VLSI Design and Embedded Systems for undergraduate students of 2nd and 3rdyear, Electronics/Electrical Engineering disciplines.


B.E./B.Tech.(Electronics/Electronics and Communication/Electronics and Telecommuni
cation/Electrical and Electronics/Electrical Engineering or similar discipline) Second Year and Third year students of any UGC/AICTE recognized University/ Institute/College.
Scope:The Course will cover device and circuit concepts in VLSI Design with related VLSI tools and also hardware, microcontroller, embedded systems, DSP processors and its applications (Topic wise details will be given separately).

Course fee:  is Rs.8000/- (Rupees Eight Thousand only) for Non-MNNIT students. Course fee for MNNIT students may be subsidized. This fee is non-refundable and is to be paid through Demand Draft in favor of “Chairman SNFCE, MNNIT Allahabad” payable at Allahabad.
Duration:5 weeks (5 days per week and 6 hours per day). The coursewill tentatively start on 11June 2013.

How to apply: Application form and information brochure is available on the Institute
website The applicants are required to download the application form and send the hard copy of the duly filled form to the Coordinator, Summer Training Programme, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, MNNIT Allahabad, Allahabad – 211004, Uttar Pradesh along with the course fee so asto reach on or before 30 April 2013. Please attach a self attested copy of mark sheet of the last semester i.e., either 4th semester or 6th semester. 

List of the short listed/selected candidates will be displayed on the departmental notice board and also on the Institute website by 05.30 PM on 15thMay 2013. No separate letter will be sent to short listed candidates. For details and updates, candidates are advised to visit the
Institute website regularly.


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Prasar bharati online mock exam(technical) question paper

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Prasar bharati mock exam-1 technical question paper with answer

   1.        Which of the following is the ideal characteristics of OP-AMP
   A.      Bandwidth is zero
   B.      Offset voltage is infinite
   C.      Output voltage is infinite
   D.      CMMR is infinite
    2.       A signal has frequency components from 300Hz to 2 kHZ.    The minimum possible rate at which the signal has to be sampled
    A.      600Hz
B.      900Hz
C.      2kHz
D.      4Khz
3.       Negative feed back in amplifiers is used to
A.      Improves the SNR at the input
B.      Improves the SNR at the output
C.      Reduces distortion
D.      Doesn’t effect the SNR at the output
4.       In PCM system, if the quantization levels are increased from 2 to 8, the relative bandwidth requirement will.
A.       remain same
B.       be doubled
C.       be tripled
D.       become four times
5.       Fulladder consists of
A.      1 halfadder and 1 AND gate
B.      2 Halfadders and 1 XOR gate
C.      1 Halfadder and 1 OR gate
D.      2 Halfadders and 1 OR gate
6.       Flipflop is a
A.      Monostable
B.      Bistable
C.      Astable
D.      None of these
7.       For a 8 bit counter the number of filpflops required is
A.      2
B.      4
C.      3
D.      1
8.       In 8085 microprocessor The data bus has
A.      Unidirectional
B.      Bi-directional
C.      Both
D.      None of these
9.       The number of hardware interrupts in 8085 Microprocessors
A.      2
B.      4
C.      3
D.      5
10.   Which of the following is used for Wider bandwidth in amplifiers
A.      Cascade connection
B.      Darlington
C.      Cascode connection
D.      Both A and B

11.   When modulation changed from 0 to 1 then power increases by
A.      20%
B.      40%
C.      50%
D.      90%
12.   The highest modulation frequency typically used in AM broadcast is
A.      5KHz
B.      10kHz
C.      15kHz
D.      22kHz
13.   Time division multiplexing used in
A.      Analog communication
B.      Digital communication
C.      Both A and B
D.      None of these
14.   In a delta modulation the slope overload and Granular noise occurs when
A.      Δ small an Δ small
B.      Δ large and Δ small
C.      Δ small and Δ large
D.      Δ large and Δ large
15.   Convert decimal number (0.8125)10 to a binary number
A.      (0.1101)2
B.      (0.1001)2
C.      (0.1100)2
D.      (0.1111)2
16.   Gray code is also called as
A.      Cyclic code
B.      Reflected code
C.      Both A and B
D.      None of these
17.   Common base  amplifier has
A.      High input impedance
B.      High output impedance
C.      Low output impedance
D.      None
18.   In negative feedback the distortion will
A.      Increase
B.      Decrease
C.      Some times increase some times decrease
D.      None of the above
19.   Barkausens criteria is
A.      Aβ=1
B.      Aβ=-1
C.      Both A and B
D.      None
20.   Which of the following is more stable
A.      Wien bridge oscillator
B.      Crystal oscillator
C.      RC oscillatory
D.      Colpitts Oscillator
21.   The forbidden energy gap for germanium atom
A.      1.1 ev
B.      0.7 ev
C.      0.3 ev
D.      None
22.   Maxwell’s curl equation for state magnetic field is given by
A.      ΔxB=μ0J
B.      ΔxB=0
C.      Δ.B=μ0J
D.      ΔxB=μ0/J
23.   For reflection coefficient ρ=0.5,VSWR is
A.      2
B.      3
C.      4
D.      8
24.   The unit of μ0ε0 is
A.      Farad henry
B.      Meter2/sec2
C.      Amp-sec
D.      None
25.   A low loss transmission line has
A.      R=ωl, G=ωC
B.      R<<ωL, G<<ωC
C.      R>>ωL, G>>ωC
D.      None
26.   Which of the following has longest wavelength
A.      HF
B.      VHF
C.      UHF
D.      SHF
27.   For a good conductor, the skin depth varies:
A.      Directly as frequency f
B.      Directly as √f
C.      Inversely as f
D.      None
28.   An antenna that is circularly polarized is
A.      Helical
B.      Yagi-uda
C.      Parabolic
D.      Small circular loop
29.   In series resonance circuit the voltage source is
A.      Low resistance
B.      High resistance
C.      Zero resistance
D.      None of the above
30.   A network is non linear if it doesn’t satisfy
A.      Homogeneity
B.      Superposition theorem
C.      Associative condition
D.      Both A and B
31.   The gray code for number 6 is
A.      1100
B.      1001
C.      0101
D.      0110
32.   What is the addressing mode used in instruction LDA 0345
A.      Direct
B.      Indirect
C.      Immediate
D.      Indexed
33.   How many modes of operations are there in 8255 PPI?
A.      1
B.      2
C.      3
D.      4
34.   Which of the following has lowest efficiency
A.      Class A
B.      Class B
C.      Class AB
D.      Class C
35.   The differential amplifier has a differential gain of 20000 CMRR=80dB. The common mode gain is
A.      2
B.      1
C.      0.5
D.      0
36.   Super-beta transistor is a
A.      Cascade configuration
B.      Cascode configuration
C.      Darlington configuration
D.      Matched pair
37.   To eliminate ghosts in the picture
A.      Use a longer transmission line
B.      Connect a booster
C.      Change the antenna orientation or location
D.      Twist the transmission line
38.   Vividhbharatiprogramme is transmitted in
A.      Short waves
B.      Medium frequency
C.      Very high frequency
D.      None
39.   The double energy transients occur in the
A.      R-L circuit
B.      R-C circuit
C.      Pure inductive circuit
D.      R-L-C circuit
40.   The unit of flux is
A.      Weber
B.      Tesla
C.      Joule
D.      Weber/m2
41.   The transfer function H(s)=(s2-5s+100)/s2+5s+100 represents
A.      A high pass filter
B.      A band elimination filter
C.      A resonator
D.      An all pass filter

42.   Double spotting in superhetrodyne receiver is caused by
A.      Poor front-end rejection
B.      Misalignment of receiver
C.      Detuning of one or more IF stages
D.      Non-functioning of AGC
43.   The ratio of distance between cochannel to radius of the cell (D/R)is
A.      N
B.      √N
C.      3√N
D.      √(3N)
44.   MAHO stands for
A.      Mobile additive hand off
B.      Mobile assisted Hand off
C.      Mounted additive hand off
D.      None of the above
45.   Traffic intensity is measured by
A.      Traffic
B.      Erlangs
C.      Seconds
D.      Decibels
46.   Frequency selective fading means
A.      Band width of the signal is greater than the band width of the channel
B.      Delay speed is greater than symbol speed
C.      Both A and B
D.      None of these
47.   HLR stands for
A.      Home localized rectifier
B.      Home location register
C.      Home loyality register
D.      None
48.   A receiver has poor if selectivity,it will therefore also have poor
A.      Blocking
B.      Double spotting
C.      Diversity reception
D.      Sensitivity
49.   The number of lines per second in the US monochrome TV system
A.      31,500
B.      15,750
C.      63.5
D.      525
50.   An LED made using GaAs emits radiation in
A.      Visible region
B.      Ultraviolet region
C.      Infrared region
D.      Microwave frequency region

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