5 Must read books written by Stephen hawking(universe Genius)

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Professor Hawking distributed numerous books handling the key inquiries concerning the universe and our reality. Stephen wrote and published numerous logical papers and address notes.

Hawking has explained the whole universe very briefly,

He explains a lot of things related to time, dimensions, secrets of the galaxies, etc.

He put forward his views about the universe and different theories given by the great scientist of the world from ancient to the present time.

He wrote and published so many books about the universe, in each book he explains neatly about the galaxy.
Here we are trying to put best 7 Top most books written by hawkings to explain about the universe, In his books, he proved that how genius that he was.

1.The Theory Of Everything

The theory of everything
In this book, Hawking has explained the whole universe very briefly.
The book explains following things deeply
 *ideas about the universe
*expanding universe
*black holes
*origin and fate of the universe
*the direction of time
* the theory of everything
the book explains everything from beginning to the end of the universe. it shows the interaction between science and natural powers. science lovers it will lead ur knowledge to a next level

A one more interesting book which explores cosmological concepts in a very simple manner.


2. Brief History Of Time

Know about universe
An Excellent book for everybody which was easily understood even not having much knowledge of physics also. It is a knowledgeable book which helps to understand the higher physics concepts which are pretty cool.

After reading this book you will try to find the reason for the existence of GOD.
By reading this book Now you will journey into Hawking's UNIVERSE. You will enter the region where you have never been before.

This book is excellent for a science lovers.




3.The Grand Design

how did the universe begin?
In this book, Hawking reviews the basics of quantum mechanics, including the elementary particles (e.g., quarks, bosons, etc.) that have been discovered thus far. He also covers the basics of string theory.

In this book, the "The Game of Life" chapter, which is a very interesting simulation created a while back. The Game of Life demonstrates how narrow our science may be in trying to discover the fundamental laws of the universe.

In fact, it almost depressed me to think that we are so limited by our human perception in trying to discover these fundamental laws.

Some negatives about the book include that it took too long to really get into the interesting questions. The first third or half of the book is mainly a history of a science lesson.

4. My Brief History

stephen hawking
"My Brief History" is a Journey of Stephen Hawking ’s from his boyhood during post-war London to his years of international acclaim.

Illustrated with rarely seen photographs, this witty and candid account introduces readers to the inquisitive, quipster of a schoolboy who was called ‘Einstein’ by his classmates;

The man who once placed a bet on the existence of a black hole; and the loving husband and father striving to gain a strong foothold in academia.



5. The Universe in a Nutshell

good read book

I simply loved the book.
The way Mr. Hawking explains the intricacies of the quantum level universe while taking a stab at the macro level relativity concepts is unique.
p-brane theories, string theories. Given that the book is not for people not involved with Physics, but for those who are,






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Gate 2019 all India exam preparation tips to Crack the exam

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CaptureNow a days GATE is becoming more popular Because from the year 2012 onwards Most of the PSU’S recruiting people through GATE score  and students showing interest on higher education like M.Tech/M.S are increasing every year in India. It is  easy to crack GATE exam (I cracked GATE –EC 2012 and I was studied in NIT) if you follow these simple steps. I already posted the details about GATE in my previous posts you can check it to know more.

Why GATE 2019 exam?
Because GATE exam is important to do M.Tech/M.S  in Top universities like IIT’S,NIT’S ….Not only that its very important to get jobs in PSU’S  like NTPC,BHEL,BEL,HPCL….and also every year BARC is recruiting scientists through GATE score so many peoples have a question that how much score is needed to get all these things??? I will clear this doubt in my future posts,today my topic is how to prepare for GATE.

Steps to Crack GATE easily:

1. Syllabus: Collect syllabus from  GATE website or you can download from here.

2. Research on your knowledge: Check the syllabus and know about yourself, i.e how much knowledge depth you have in those subjects because all these subjects you have  already learnt in your graduation and make a list of  subjects you are poor and on which subjects you are good.

3. Check In how many subjects you are poor and good from the list which you have prepared.If you are not clear with basic subjects, its better to join in any good coaching centers or learn subjects online from NPTEL ,MITOCW websites. Now a days some coaching centers offering online classes too so if you have  interest you can check their websites for more information.

4. Previous papers & Making a short Notes: If you have some knowledge in subjects and you want to learn more in depth you can also take classes online from NPTEL and MIT those offering these courses for free and also follow at least two standard text books for each subject. Before studying any subject once check previous GATE papers and note down the areas on which questions are asked. First choose the subject which you are poor, while studying or learning focus more on those areas in which they are asking questions and note down the important points in a separate notes it will useful to refer before the exam.

5.Practice makes Man perfect: After studying one subject you need to practice previous questions of the respective subject from GATE and IES papers you can download these papers online or you buy it from market/online .

Why IES papers,sometimes in GATE exam they give direct one mark questions from these IES papers so you need to practice those papers also to differentiate your gate score from others.Practice more and more problems to crack gate easily.

6. Have a faith in your self: Without self motivation and self believe, no one in this world can achieve anything. Its tough to crack gate if you don’t have any plan or time table.Normally 3 to 4 months of serious study will be sufficient for the preparation so prepare your own time table now.

7.Test series: After completing your preparation take some online test series exams conducted by some institutes(like Gate Forum) that will helpful to know your preparation and also it gives confidence to the final GATE exam.

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BARC 2019 exam Syllabus and exam pattern for Electronics and communications(ECE)

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BARC(baba atomic research center) is a premier multi-disciplinary Nuclear Research Centre of India works on atomic and nuclear field, this is the one of the challenging work for an engineers who really interested to work in atomic field.

The OCES/DGFS electronics written exam paper is totally technical questions and The level of the question paper is similar to the GATE paper but not much tough as GATE. Prepare a plan to study, don’t concentrate more on studying text books, Do more work on Objective bits and concentrate more on previous papers of GATE,IES,JTO,..etc whatever previous technical question paper you have do it first, I will post more articles on how to prepare for competitive exam later on. one who works on bits can easily qualify in written exam. This paper consists of both theoretical and problematic questions. 

There is no specific syllabus given by BARC we are expecting more questions from the below topics. The exam Paper may contains 100 question (2 hours duration) only Technical questions there is no general questions. The most of the questions will come from Analog and digital electronics, electromagnetic and microwave, Communication(analog & digital),control systems, Signal and systems, Microprocessor, Computer organization,Network theory. 

  1. analog electronics: Most of the questions will come from OP-AMP, feedback amplifiers, oscillators, amplifiers, diode equation, zener diode, A-D and D-A converters. 
  2. digital electronics: K-map, Combinational( Mutiplexer, encoder, decoder, basic logic circuits) and sequential circuits(flip-flops, registers, counters).  
  3. electromagnetic: Maxwell’s equations, Electromagnetic wave propagations, transmission lines, microwave.  
  4. communications: AM, FM, PM, PCM, DM, FSK, QPSK, PAM, PPM, noise, ISI, probability of errors,   
  5. control systems: Stability, steady state response, transient response, compensators, Root locus, bode plot. 
  6. signal and systems: signal basics, system basics, Fourier transform, laplace transform, z-transform.
  7.  network theory: nodal analysis , mesh analysis, theorems(thevinens, nortons, max power theorem, superposition), two port networks. 
  8. microprocessor: mainly they will ask 8085 basics and small programs.

Practice all previous GATE questions,IES, JTO, etc... don't believe this is the exact BARC syllabus fully some what we are expecting finally i suggest you to just followthe  total GATE syllabus.


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ISRO syllabus for electronics and communication(ECE) 2019

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ISRO Scientist-B recruitment exam syllabus 2019:

The syllabus is similar to ECE GATE syllabus,we should prefer GATE and IES electronics syllabus for any competitive exams, In isro written exam some questions will be asked from computer engineering which is not in Gate syllabus, here I am giving basic syllabus based on previous papers,You can also see the previous isro papers here.

(1) Electronic Devices and ICs:      
Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in
silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, p-I-n and avalanche photodiode, integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.
   
Straightforward problems are only asked, which can be solved with basic concepts in diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET(less important). Expect theory questions also from other topics. 

(2) Signals and Systems:
Classification of signals and systems; System modeling in terms of differential and difference equations; Fourier series; Fourier transforms and their application to system analysis; Laplace transforms and their application to system analysis; Convolution and superposition integrals and their applications; Z-transforms and their applications to the analysis and characterization of discrete time systems; Random signals and probability; Correlation functions; Spectral density; Response of linear system to random inputs.
(3) Network Theory:
Network analysis techniques; Network theorems, transient response, steady state sinusoidal response; Network graphs and their applications in network analysis; Tellegen's theorem. Two port networks; Z, Y, h and transmission parameters. Combination of two ports, analysis of common two ports.
(4) Electromagnetic Theory:
Analysis of electrostatic and magneto-static fields; Laplace's and Poisson's equations; Boundary value problems and their solutions; Maxwell's equations; application to wave propagation in bounded and unbounded media; Transmission lines: basic theory, standing waves, matching applications, Elements of antenna theory and microwave basics.

Expect majority questions from this topic. Study this topic really well, as many theory questions and problems are asked from this. Many questions from microwave is asked which is out of syllabus for gate. Study satellite communication link design and antenna theory also. Questions from topics which we don’t usually find important for GATE can come.

(5) Analog Electronic Circuits:
Transistor biasing and stabilization. Small signal analysis. Power amplifiers. Frequency. response. Wide banding techniques. Feedback amplifiers. Tuned amplifiers. Oscillators, Rectifiers and power supplies. Op Amp, 555 timer, PLL, other applications. Pulse shaping circuits and waveform generators.

Mainly circuits with BJT and OPAMPS only asked. Also learn Rectifiers with zener diode
 
(6) Digital Electronic Circuits:
Boolean algebra, simplification of Boolean function Karnaugh map and applications; IC Logic gates and their characteristics; IC logic families: DTL, TTL, ECL, NMOS, PMOS and CMOS gates and their comparison; Combinational logic circuits; Half adder, Full adder; Digital comparator; Multiplexer De-multiplexer; ROM and their applications. Flip-flops. R-S, J-K, D and T flip-tops; Different types of counters and registers. Waveform generators. A/D and D/A converters.

Lot of very straight forward questions asked. So brush up everything and study A/D converters which is not that important for gate.
(7) Control Systems:
Transient and steady state response of control systems; Effect of feedback on stability and sensitivity; Root locus techniques; Frequency response analysis. Concepts of gain and phase margins; Constant-M and Constant-N Nichol's Chart; Approximation of transient response from Constant-N Nichol's Chart; Approximation of transient response from closed loop frequency response; Design of Control Systems; Compensators; Industrial controllers.

Very few questions are asked, that too straight forward negative feedback question, system response etc. and related to concepts in root locus and other graphical methods
(8) Communication Systems:
Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density
function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.

Compared to gate syllabus, this is having lot of advanced topics. Study each and every heading in this. Anything can be asked (mostly direct but expect little tricky questions here). Even questions from coding theory have been asked even though not in GATE syllabus.
 
(9) Computer Engineering:
Number Systems. Data representation; Programming; Elements of a high level programming language PASCAL/C; Use of basic data structures; Fundamentals of computer architecture; Processor design; Control unit design; Memory organization, I/o System Organization. Microprocessors: Architecture and instruction set of Microprocessor's 8085 and 8086, Assembly language Programming. Microprocessor Based system design: typical examples. Personal computers and their typical uses.

This topic you will find difficult to study, as it is not for GATE and from previous year paper it is not easy for pin pointing even the correct syllabus. Many topics electronics students are not studying(mostly computer science people only knows the answers so get their help in finding answers in the previous year papers). Better don’t waste too much time in this. Study only basic concepts in computer networks, computer organization and microprocessor (study if you have done it as part of university syllabus and leave the more advanced topics in this and devote more time on to gate syllabus part)


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GATE syllabus for ece 2019 ( IIT Madras updated syllabus)

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gate syllabus
Gate is one of the competitive exams in India to took engineering PG-M.tech or M.S or PhD admission in top most colleges like IIT, NIT, Top universities, Bits Pilani and it also used to get a job in PSU’S.

This year GATE 2019 is going to organised by IIT Madras, The official notification and syllabus are going to release soon.

 Here I am giving latest GATE 2019  exam syllabus for Electronics and Communication Engineering(ECE) which we are expecting similar to gate 2018 syllabus Practice from now onwards to clear and Get good score.


Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Vector space, basis, linear dependence and independence, matrix algebra, eigen values and eigen vectors, rank, solution of linear equations – existence and uniqueness.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, line, surface and volume integrals, Taylor series.
Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), higher order linear differential equations, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, methods of solution using variation of parameters, complementary function and particular integral, partial differential equations, variable separable method, initial and boundary value problems.
Vector Analysis: Vectors in plane and space, vector operations, gradient, divergence and curl, Gauss's, Green's and Stoke's theorems.
Complex Analysis: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Cauchy's integral formula; Taylor's and Laurent's series, residue theorem.
Numerical Methods: Solution of nonlinear equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations, convergence criteria.
Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; combinatorial probability, probability distribution functions - binomial, Poisson, exponential and normal; Joint and conditional probability; Correlation and regression analysis.

Section 2: Networks, Signals and Systems

Network solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis; Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s, maximum power transfer; Wye‐Delta transformation; Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors; Time domain analysis of simple linear circuits; Solution of network equations using Laplace transform; Frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits; Linear 2‐port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions; State equations for networks.

Continuous-time signals: Fourier series and Fourier transform representations, sampling theorem and applications; Discrete-time signals: discrete-time Fourier transform (DTFT), DFT, FFT, Z-transform, interpolation of discrete-time signals; LTI systems: definition and properties, causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay, digital filter design techniques.

Section 3: Electronic Devices

Energy bands in intrinsic and extrinsic silicon; Carrier transport: diffusion current, drift current, mobility and resistivity; Generation and recombination of carriers; Poisson and continuity equations; P-N junction, Zener diode, BJT, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, photo diode and solar cell; Integrated circuit fabrication process: oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography and twin-tub CMOS process.

Section 4: Analog Circuits

Small signal equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs and MOSFETs; Simple diode circuits: clipping, clamping and rectifiers; Single-stage BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: biasing, bias stability, mid-frequency small signal analysis and frequency response; BJT and MOSFET amplifiers: multi-stage, differential, feedback, power and operational; Simple op-amp circuits; Active filters; Sinusoidal oscillators: criterion for oscillation, single-transistor and op-amp configurations; Function generators, wave-shaping circuits and 555 timers; Voltage reference circuits; Power supplies: ripple removal and regulation.

Section 5: Digital Circuits

Number systems; Combinatorial circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of functions using Boolean identities and Karnaugh map, logic gates and their static CMOS implementations, arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders and PLAs; Sequential circuits: latches and flip‐flops, counters, shift‐registers and finite state machines; Data converters: sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs; Semiconductor memories: ROM, SRAM, DRAM;
8-bit microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Section 6: Control Systems

Basic control system components; Feedback principle; Transfer function; Block diagram representation; Signal flow graph; Transient and steady-state analysis of LTI systems; Frequency response; Routh-Hurwitz and Nyquist stability criteria; Bode and root-locus plots; Lag, lead and lag-lead compensation; State variable model and solution of state equation of LTI systems.

Section 7: Communications

Random processes: autocorrelation and power spectral density, properties of white noise, filtering of random signals through LTI systems; Analog communications: amplitude modulation and demodulation, angle modulation and demodulation, spectra of AM and FM, superheterodyne receivers, circuits for analog communications; Information theory: entropy, mutual information and channel capacity theorem; Digital communications: PCM, DPCM, digital modulation schemes, amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying (ASK, PSK, FSK), QAM, MAP and ML decoding, matched filter receiver, calculation of bandwidth, SNR and BER for digital modulation; Fundamentals of error correction, Hamming codes; Timing and frequency synchronization, inter-symbol interference and its mitigation; Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA.

Section 8: Electromagnetics

Electrostatics; Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms and their interpretation, boundary conditions, wave equation, Poynting vector; Plane waves and properties: reflection and refraction, polarization, phase and group velocity, propagation through various media, skin depth; Transmission lines: equations, characteristic impedance, impedance matching, impedance transformation, S-parameters, Smith chart; Waveguides: modes, boundary conditions, cut-off frequencies, dispersion relations; Antennas: antenna types, radiation pattern, gain and directivity, return loss, antenna arrays; Basics of radar; Light propagation in optical fibers.




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