The Best Career Options for EC Engineers in VLSI Companies
Electronics and Communication is considered one of the toughest engineering branches. However, the rewards that it offers in terms of some of the most challenging and exciting careers make studying this branch totally worth it. VLSI or Very Large Scale Integration also sometimes known as Chip design is one of the subdomains of electronics, dealing with the particular logic and circuit design techniques required to design integrated circuits.
There are numerous good opportunities for individuals after completing B.Tech in ECE. One can resort to private companies which offer competitive salaries, ample opportunities to learn and an exciting career path. On the other hand, public sector companies also have a number of great opportunities that one can pursue in the electronics. However, if you want a job in the government sector then there are other additional requirements such as clearing the entrance exam conducted by Union Public Service Commission or State Public Service Commission. Out of so many subsets of Electronics and Communication Engineering, VLSI holds special importance as it has some of the highest paying careers for professionals.
VLSI or Very Large Scale Integration is all about Integrated Design. In layman’s language it is known as chip design. This is a highly technical field which requires complete understanding of complex semiconductor concepts. VLSI design is mainly treated as hardware design as one is required to define the chip’s architecture, create circuit designs, run simulations, tape out the chip to the foundry and test the prototype once the chip returns from the laboratory. Individuals who are creative and try something more challenging than the jobs out there should look for jobs in VLSI. You will need good programming skills along with excellent mathematical and analytical aptitude. Expertise in high level languages such as Verilog and VHDL, which are probably the most popular languages in chip designing, is one of the important criterions of getting selected for a job in VLSI.
Industry news
These are the times of wearable technology. Even clothes have chips inside them. Then there are the electronic appliances that we simply can’t think of even living without such as microwave ovens, air conditioners, mobile phones, televisions and others. There is little doubt over the bright future of chip designers and programmers and therefore, making a career in this field can be of huge advantage. VLSI engineers can work in wide variety of industries such as Telecommunication, consumer electronics, semiconductor, embedded systems amongst others. These engineering jobs are also the best paid employment opportunities in India.
Different Types of Job Opportunities
One can differentiate between different types of jobs in VLSI by either the industry or the work responsibilities. Going by the kind of work, there are mainly four types of jobs:
Design Engineer
A design engineer, also known as physical design engineer is mainly responsible for design implementation. One needs to be technically sound to efficiently deliver the work responsibilities. One deals with different kinds of chip designs such as ASIC, FPGA, DFT, AMS, PCB and other custom designs. The various job titles that are assumed by professionals handling all this work include PCB designer, Backend designer, Frontend designer, AMS designer, DFT designer and Library developer.
Verification Engineer
As the name suggests, verification engineer verifies the design and makes sure that it works fine. India is known for its world class verification facilities and around 70% of projects here are related to verification. Therefore, the demand for verification engineers is maximum in India. To make it big in this field one needs to have strong programming skills. The different types of verifications undertaken by professionals include frontend verification, acceleration, product validation, behavioral modeling, and Verification IP implementation. Modeling engineers, Validation engineers, verification consultants all have similar responsibilities.
Application Engineer
An application engineer is responsible for creating the interface between the R&D and customers and promoting EDA solution. In order to effectively carry out these responsibilities, an application engineer should have good communication and interpersonal skills. With excellent presentation abilities one can go places under this job title. Field Application Engineer and Corporate Application Engineer are some of the job titles in this field.
There is a huge potential in the market for those interested in VLSI. The demand of chip designers is higher than the supply, which means the existing roles are highly paid as well, a winwin situation for VLSI engineers.
Author Bio:
Saurabh Tyagi is a blogger and a professional career author with proven expertise in writing for topics related to jobs, job trends, different job opportunities, various workplace and industry information, tips and strategies for job seekers.
National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology (NIELIT) Scientist syllabus for electronics
Every year Nielit recruits scientistB from various branches here i am giving syllabus for electronics and communications branch.
Electronics and Communication Engineering (EC):
Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula,Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Transform Theory: Fourier transform,Laplace transform, Ztransform.
Electronics and Communication Engineering technical
Networks: Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems:
superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, WyeDelta transformation.Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations;time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplacetransform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2port network parameters: driving pointand transfer functions. State equations for networks.
Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers.pn junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, pIn and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, ntub, ptub and twintub CMOS process.
Analog Circuits: Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier.Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: singleand multistage, differential and operational, feedback, and power. Frequency response of amplifiers.Simple opamp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; singletransistor and opamp configurations.Function generators and waveshaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.
Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flipflops, counters and shiftregisters. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories.
Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.
Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties ofLaplace transform, continuoustime and discretetime Fourier series, continuoustime and discretetime Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, ztransform. Sampling theorem. Linear TimeInvariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.
Control Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, RouthHurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots.
Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional IntegralDerivative (PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.
Communications: Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signaltonoise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential
pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.
Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems, Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S parameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cutoff frequencies; dispersion relations. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas;
radiation pattern; antenna gain.
Electronics and Communication Engineering (EC):
Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear
differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula,Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson,Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, single and multistep methods for differential equations.
Transform Theory: Fourier transform,Laplace transform, Ztransform.
Electronics and Communication Engineering technical
Networks: Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems:
superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, WyeDelta transformation.Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations;time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplacetransform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2port network parameters: driving pointand transfer functions. State equations for networks.
Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers.pn junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, pIn and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, ntub, ptub and twintub CMOS process.
Analog Circuits: Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier.Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: singleand multistage, differential and operational, feedback, and power. Frequency response of amplifiers.Simple opamp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; singletransistor and opamp configurations.Function generators and waveshaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.
Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flipflops, counters and shiftregisters. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories.
Microprocessor(8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.
Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties ofLaplace transform, continuoustime and discretetime Fourier series, continuoustime and discretetime Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, ztransform. Sampling theorem. Linear TimeInvariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.
Control Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, RouthHurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots.
Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of Proportional IntegralDerivative (PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.
Communications: Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signaltonoise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential
pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.
Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems, Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S parameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cutoff frequencies; dispersion relations. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas;
radiation pattern; antenna gain.
Nielit scientistB exam question paper pattern
National Institute of Electronics & Information Technology (NIELIT) recruits scientists from various branches every year, the selection process consists of written exam. The syllabus for this post was already given in my previous posts but here i am giving a flow chart of exam pattern which consists of both technical and non technical questions based on the syllabus.
Preparation Steps to Success in any competitive Exams
Now a days there is a more competition for any competitive exams.Here I am giving some important steps based on my experience to success in any competitive exams related to electronics like BSNL, IES, GATE, BARC, DRDO, ISRO, BHEL, BEL, GAIL, etc……..
Step1: First step is read the notification completely and if they mention any exam date in notification note down the exam date,If they didn’t mention the date then just assume that the exam will be held with in 2 month from the release of notification(now note down the expected/assumed exam date).
Step2: Now next step is to know the syllabus and exam pattern ,search the internet/website of company and take the printout of the syllabus.
Step3: Most important step is to find previous year question papers,Search internet or Buy previous papers books in a market or online.The previous papers are used to give an idea about the exam pattern and to know what type of questions are giving.
Step4: Now check the previous papers questions, are these questions are coming from syllabus or not.If any question is from outside of the syllabus then you just add that topic into syllabus.
Step5: Until Step4 we collect the sources to prepare for the exam.Now according to the exam date and based on your convenience you should prepare a preparation daily plan/Time table.
Step6: According to the Plan/Time table Start your preparation.Before reading any text book first check the previous questions concert to that subject/topic and observe what type of questions are giving, and which areas they covered most,so that its becomes easy to study and give more interest to study.
Step7: Don’t spend more time on reading theory text books,Instead of that practice more objective questions of all previous papers of competitive exams that gives good confidence and shows the way to success..
ONE WHO PRACTICE A LOT WILL DEFINETLY GET SUCCESS.
ALL THE BEST!!!!
Step1: First step is read the notification completely and if they mention any exam date in notification note down the exam date,If they didn’t mention the date then just assume that the exam will be held with in 2 month from the release of notification(now note down the expected/assumed exam date).
Step2: Now next step is to know the syllabus and exam pattern ,search the internet/website of company and take the printout of the syllabus.
Step3: Most important step is to find previous year question papers,Search internet or Buy previous papers books in a market or online.The previous papers are used to give an idea about the exam pattern and to know what type of questions are giving.
Step4: Now check the previous papers questions, are these questions are coming from syllabus or not.If any question is from outside of the syllabus then you just add that topic into syllabus.
Step5: Until Step4 we collect the sources to prepare for the exam.Now according to the exam date and based on your convenience you should prepare a preparation daily plan/Time table.
Step6: According to the Plan/Time table Start your preparation.Before reading any text book first check the previous questions concert to that subject/topic and observe what type of questions are giving, and which areas they covered most,so that its becomes easy to study and give more interest to study.
Step7: Don’t spend more time on reading theory text books,Instead of that practice more objective questions of all previous papers of competitive exams that gives good confidence and shows the way to success..
ONE WHO PRACTICE A LOT WILL DEFINETLY GET SUCCESS.
ALL THE BEST!!!!
AP PGECET Syllabus and previous papers for ece and eee
The main objective of PGECET is to identify at the state level, meritorious and motivated candidates who didn’t qualify in GATE exam for admission to Post Graduate programmes in Engineering and technology. PGCET exam is useful for the students who wants to take admissions in higher education. Here I am giving syllabus for APPGCET written exam for ECE and EEE.
PGECET examinations consist of each paper of 2 hours duration and carry a maximum of 120 marks.
Electronics & Communication Engineering:
Engineering Mathematics
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals,Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.
Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals,Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.
Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.
Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor's and Laurent' series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.
Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.
Numerical Methods: Solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, single and multistep methods for
differential equations.
differential equations.
Networks: Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton's maximum power transfer, WyeDelta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.
Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon:
diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. pn junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, pIn and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, ntub, ptub and twintub CMOS process.
diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. pn junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, pIn and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, ntub, ptub and twintub CMOS process.
Analog Circuits: Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers.Amplifiers: singleand multistage, differential and operational, feedback, and power. Frequency response of amplifiers. Simple opamp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; singletransistor and opamp configurations. Function generators and waveshaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.
Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL,TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders,PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flipflops, counters and shiftregisters. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories. Microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.
Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties of Laplace transform continuoustime and discretetime Fourier series, continuoustime and discretetime Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, ztransform. Sampling theorem. Linear TimeInvariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.
Control Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, RouthHurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots. Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of ProportionalIntegralDerivative (PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.
Communications: Random signals and noise: probability, random variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signaltonoise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.
Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss' and Stokes' theorems, Maxwell's equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S parameters, pulse excitation. Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cutoff frequencies;dispersion relations. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas; radiation pattern; antenna gain.
Electrical Engineering:
Mathematics: Similar to ECE syllabus.
Electric Circuits and Fields: Network graph, KCL, KVL, node and mesh analysis, transient response of dc and ac networks; sinusoidal steadystate analysis, resonance, basic filter concepts; ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin's, Norton's and Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, twoport networks, three phase circuits; Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions; Ampere's and BiotSavart's laws; inductance; dielectrics; capacitance.
Signals and Systems: Representation of continuous and discretetime signals; shifting and scaling operations; linear, timeinvariant and causal systems; Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals; sampling theorem; Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms.
Electrical Machines: Single phase transformer  equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency; three phase transformers  connections, parallel operation; autotransformer; energy conversion principles; DC machines  types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors; three phase induction motors  principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control; single phase induction motors; synchronous machines performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications;servo and stepper motors.
Power Systems: Basic power generation concepts; transmission line models and performance; cable
performance, insulation; corona and radio interference; distribution systems; perunit quantities; bus
impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control; power factor correction; economic operation;symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection; solid state relays and digital protection; circuit breakers; system stability concepts, swing curves and equal area criterion; HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts.
performance, insulation; corona and radio interference; distribution systems; perunit quantities; bus
impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control; power factor correction; economic operation;symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection; solid state relays and digital protection; circuit breakers; system stability concepts, swing curves and equal area criterion; HVDC transmission and FACTS concepts.
Control Systems: Principles of feedback; transfer function; block diagrams; steadystate errors; Routh and Niquist techniques; Bode plots; root loci; lag, lead and leadlag compensation; state space model; state transition matrix, controllability and observability.
Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Bridges and potentiometers; PMMC, moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments; measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; instrument transformers; digital voltmeters and multimeters; phase, time and frequency measurement; Qmeters; oscilloscopes; potentiometric recorders; error analysis.
Analog and Digital Electronics: Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET; amplifiers  biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers; operational amplifiers  characteristics and applications; simple active filters; VCOs and timers; combinational and sequential logic circuits; multiplexer; Schmitt trigger; multivibrators; sample and hold circuits; A/D and D/A converters; 8bit microprocessor basics, architecture, programming and interfacing.
Power Electronics and Drives: Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs  static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters  fully controlled and half controlled; principles of choppers and inverters; basis concepts of adjustable speed dc and ac drives.
DOWNLOAD THE SYLLABUS IN PDF FORMAT
PGECET Previous papers
Best top GATE Coaching centers in IndiaHyderabadChennaiDelhi
After completion of my graduation I was thinking what to do next, at that time some one suggested me to take GATE exam for higher studies so,I decided to write GATE for that purpose I asked so many people who got success in previous GATE exams about the coaching centers i.e I almost done a small research on coaching centers. As per my survey most of the people suggest the below four coaching centers only so here I want to share my research with you.
1. ACE Academy: In every year thousands of people are taking coaching from this institute.This is the one of the best institute which succeeded in giving better coaching to GATE and it is located in Hyderabad.
2. Made Easy: This is also one of the successful institute for Both IES and GATE coaching,They have different branches in across India.They take limited students per class.
3. Gate forum: This is the one of the coaching centers which offers online classes for GATE.They have different branches across India.
4. Lead Tirupati: It is also one of the successful GATE coaching institute is located in Tirupati(Andhra Pradesh).
There are so many institutes but the above four are the most famous institutes across India.If you want to prepare for both GATE and PSU jobs or any govt core jobs its better to take IES coaching it will useful for both GATE and jobs . wherever you Join without your hard work none of the institutes will give better result to you.
Other institutes: Vani Institute Bangalore, Dronacharya(delhi) etc…
1. ACE Academy: In every year thousands of people are taking coaching from this institute.This is the one of the best institute which succeeded in giving better coaching to GATE and it is located in Hyderabad.
2. Made Easy: This is also one of the successful institute for Both IES and GATE coaching,They have different branches in across India.They take limited students per class.
3. Gate forum: This is the one of the coaching centers which offers online classes for GATE.They have different branches across India.
4. Lead Tirupati: It is also one of the successful GATE coaching institute is located in Tirupati(Andhra Pradesh).
There are so many institutes but the above four are the most famous institutes across India.If you want to prepare for both GATE and PSU jobs or any govt core jobs its better to take IES coaching it will useful for both GATE and jobs . wherever you Join without your hard work none of the institutes will give better result to you.
Other institutes: Vani Institute Bangalore, Dronacharya(delhi) etc…
Use of writing GATE 2018 exam and pattern of the exam
What is GATE exam?
GATE is abbreviated as graduate aptitude test in engineering is an all India examination that tests the engineering technical aptitude skills. Every year this exam was conducted by one of the seven IIT’s and IISc banglore.
Why should we write this GATE 2018 Exam?
1. For getting a job in PSU’s like IOCL,GAIL,SAIL,AAI, etc…
2. For doing a M.E, M.Tech and M.S in reputed institutes like IIT’s ,IISc,NIT’s and top universities.
Exam pattern:
The question paper consists of two parts of 65 questions carrying a maximum of 100 marks
PartA: Mathematics and Technical of total 85 marks
PartB: General English and Aptitude of total 15 Marks
The question paper will consists of both multiple choice questions(MCQ) and numerical answer type questions. Every year lakhs of peoples are writing this exam but only some peoples are getting success . Gate qualified students are eligible for stipend of Rs.12400/ per month on M.tech admissions.
keywords: gate 2017 papers, syllabus, exam date
GATE is abbreviated as graduate aptitude test in engineering is an all India examination that tests the engineering technical aptitude skills. Every year this exam was conducted by one of the seven IIT’s and IISc banglore.
Why should we write this GATE 2018 Exam?
1. For getting a job in PSU’s like IOCL,GAIL,SAIL,AAI, etc…
2. For doing a M.E, M.Tech and M.S in reputed institutes like IIT’s ,IISc,NIT’s and top universities.
Exam pattern:
The question paper consists of two parts of 65 questions carrying a maximum of 100 marks
PartA: Mathematics and Technical of total 85 marks
PartB: General English and Aptitude of total 15 Marks
The question paper will consists of both multiple choice questions(MCQ) and numerical answer type questions. Every year lakhs of peoples are writing this exam but only some peoples are getting success . Gate qualified students are eligible for stipend of Rs.12400/ per month on M.tech admissions.
keywords: gate 2017 papers, syllabus, exam date
Vizag steel plant Management trainee syllabus for ECE and EEE
Recently Visakhapatnam steel plant releases a notification for the post of management trainee,here I am giving syllabus for the written exam for the branches electronics and electrical.Written test will comprise of General Awareness, Numerical Ability, General English, Verbal and Non Verbal Reasoning and separate paper for each discipline and there is no negative marking in the test.
Numericals:Percentages & Averages,Profit,Loss & Discount,Ratio and Proportion,Stocks and Shares
Simple Interest & Compound Interest,Time , work and distance,Permutations & Combinations.
Verbal: Articles,Prepositions,Reading Comprehension,Synonyms
General awareness: GK,Current Affairs,History,polity.
Electronics: Electronics Analog electronics,Computers and Microprocessors,Control Systems
Digital Electronics,Electrical and Electronic Measurements,Industrial Electronics,Network Theory
Semiconductor Devices.
Aptitude:
Logical reasoning:Deductive Logic,Inductive Logic,Conceptualization,Puzzles,Venn Diagram.Numericals:Percentages & Averages,Profit,Loss & Discount,Ratio and Proportion,Stocks and Shares
Simple Interest & Compound Interest,Time , work and distance,Permutations & Combinations.
Verbal: Articles,Prepositions,Reading Comprehension,Synonyms
General awareness: GK,Current Affairs,History,polity.
Technical:
Electrical: Analog and Digital Electronics,Control Systems,Electric Circuits and Fields,Electrical and Electronic Measurements,Electrical Machines,Power Electronics and Drives,Power Systems,Signals and Systems.Electronics: Electronics Analog electronics,Computers and Microprocessors,Control Systems
Digital Electronics,Electrical and Electronic Measurements,Industrial Electronics,Network Theory
Semiconductor Devices.
PREVIOUS PAPERS
BEL Probationary engineer syllabus and practice books for electronics
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Bharat electronics limited(BEL) is one of the largest electronic industry in India,every year they recruit maximum of 100 electronics engineers through GATE or a written test conducted by them and The written test will be held at Bangalore, Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Guwahati centers only. So, Candidates should choose the test center nearest to their place of correspondence.
The written test is of objective type of both technical and General aptitude. In 2012 written exam they asked 150 questions with time constraint. In competitive exam time management is very important so,you should practice and prepare well to manage your exam time.
Mostly they asked basic theory questions and small problem based questions from the engineering subjects in technical sections,the technical paper is easy for a student who preparing or prepared for GATE/IES and while coming to the aptitude it’s little bit tough,and it will take more time to solve.
see more>>> ECE Technical Jobs
We are giving the expected syllabus based on previous exam,there is no exact syllabus given by BEL team.
Technical section: Follow the GATE and IES syllabus
Main Subjects: Analog electronics(concentrate more on Opamps, Amplifiers), Basics of electronics(concentrate more on FET,MOSFET), Digital electronics,Microprocessors, Logic families, Network theory, Antennas(More important don’t leave it), Transmission lines, Signals and systems(basics of signals, Laplace transform, ztransform) , Analog and digital communications, control systems, Engineering Mathematics ( in last exam they asked questions from Differential equations,integrations and matrices), 1or 2 questions from instrumentation.
Aptitude and reasoning: R.S.Agarwal book is sufficient.
Main Topics: Profit and loss, Simple interest and compound interest, time and work, problems on Ages, train problems, time and distance, pipes and cistern, Boats and streams so on………………
May be this year we are expecting questions for General awareness and General English also first of all you should practice technical thoroughly and then aptitude finally go for general awareness and English.
SEE MORE >> Previous Papers
Practice books:
There is no particular book for any PSU, these are all practice books which contains objective questions for practice. To success in any competitive exam practice is more important than simply studying.. All the best!!!!
For aptitude book i already wrote an article on best aptitude book you can check it here.
Practice objective question book for PSU by made easy
Objective Electrical and electronics and communications
Keywords: bel pe syllabus 2014, syllabus for bel exam electronics,bel previous papers for ece.
SEE MORE >> Previous Papers
Practice books:
There is no particular book for any PSU, these are all practice books which contains objective questions for practice. To success in any competitive exam practice is more important than simply studying.. All the best!!!!
For aptitude book i already wrote an article on best aptitude book you can check it here.
Practice objective question book for PSU by made easy
Objective Electrical and electronics and communications
Keywords: bel pe syllabus 2014, syllabus for bel exam electronics,bel previous papers for ece.
Check JEE main result 2018 declared marks and rank card
Recently CBSE conducts JEE (joint entrance examination) MAIN both offline and online exams, The students from india are eagerly waiting for their JEE Main results 2018 with rank and score, based on that rank they will took admission in top engineering colleges (IIT/NIT) or they can eligible to write JEE advanced exam.
Recently they released an OMR response sheets to verify it by candidates. In order to check your OMR response sheets for 2018 exam visit JEE main website. Students can check their answers and check what they have scored by calculating their marks from the answer keys. The Board has also invited challenges to the answer keys.
In 2017, the results were declared on April 27, in 2017 also the results will be on 27 april 2018 date.
1. Go to the official website for JEE main 2017 (jeemain.nic.in).
2. Open results page and enter your hallticket number
3. Displays the result.
tags: jee mains 2018 results , jee mains 2017 cutoff, jee advanced, topper of jee, iit admissions, my jee rank and score. జేఈ 2017 రిజల్ట్స్
Recently they released an OMR response sheets to verify it by candidates. In order to check your OMR response sheets for 2018 exam visit JEE main website. Students can check their answers and check what they have scored by calculating their marks from the answer keys. The Board has also invited challenges to the answer keys.
In 2017, the results were declared on April 27, in 2017 also the results will be on 27 april 2018 date.
How to check JEE main 2018 exam results:
1. Go to the official website for JEE main 2017 (jeemain.nic.in).
2. Open results page and enter your hallticket number
3. Displays the result.
 The scores that will be released will comprise of marks obtained in Paper 1 along with the status of those who qualify for appearing in JEE (Advanced) https://jeeadv.ac.in/
 Further, the rank shall comprise All India Rank (AIR) and All India category rank
 Also, candidates score or rank card will be not be sent to them personally
tags: jee mains 2018 results , jee mains 2017 cutoff, jee advanced, topper of jee, iit admissions, my jee rank and score. జేఈ 2017 రిజల్ట్స్
Bihar board 12 result 2018 at biharboard . ac. In
The Bihar students are eagerly waiting for their intermediate 12th result 2018. Bihar School Examination Board (BSEB) is ready to announce
Bihar board 12th results on May 10 (expected). According to the report, approximately 12.61 lakh students
appeared in the state plus two examination, out of whom 7,04,868 were
boys and 5,56,925 were girls.
Check your bihar intermediate results 2018 at Biharboard.ac.in with marksheets for all science and arts branches.
2. Click on relevant Result page or http://bihar.indiaresults.com/bseb/default.aspx
3. Fill roll number and date of birth
4. Press submit and download result and take printout.
we will update this page when the results announced, subscribe us to recieve latest updates on bihar board results.
tags: Bihar intermediate results 2018, bihar board class 12th result, marksheets of class 12th, bihar board results, बिहार इंटरमीडिएट रिजल्ट २०१७ ,
Check your bihar intermediate results 2018 at Biharboard.ac.in with marksheets for all science and arts branches.
Procedure to check your Bihar Board 12th results online:
1. Open the official website www.biharboard.ac.in2. Click on relevant Result page or http://bihar.indiaresults.com/bseb/default.aspx
3. Fill roll number and date of birth
4. Press submit and download result and take printout.
we will update this page when the results announced, subscribe us to recieve latest updates on bihar board results.
tags: Bihar intermediate results 2018, bihar board class 12th result, marksheets of class 12th, bihar board results, बिहार इंटरमीडिएट रिजल्ट २०१७ ,
APPSC polytechnic lecturers syllabus for Electronics and Communication engineersece
In APPSC exam time table they mention to recruit lectures in government polytechnic colleges in August /September of 2017, here we will try to help the candidates to clear the written exam,so we provide the full structure of written exam and the process of recruitment.
The eligibility for applying this post is First class in B.E/B.Tech in concered branch
Mainly the recruitment is divided into two parts:
PARTA: Written (Objective Type) Examination:
Paper1 General Studies :150 Marks.
Paper2 Concerned engineering Subject :300 Marks.
PARTB: ORAL TEST (Interview) 50 Marks
02. Feedback Amplifiers and oscillator Circuits Wave Shaping circuits, Logic Gates, Boolean Theorems,
Adders & Subtractors. Antennas & Propagation – Radiation Principle, Antenna parameters.
Definitions. Directional Antennas, Linear Antenna Arrays, Broadside & End fire Arrays, Gain, Directivity, Radiation pattern.
Ground Wave, Sky Wave, Ionosphere Propagation, Guided Waves, Rectangular WaveGuide Analysis,
Microwave Circuits and Components.
Microwave Tubes, Klystron, Magnetron, and TWT.
Modulation Techniques – AM, FM, PM. Channel capacity, Noise, AM, FM, Transmitters, Radio Receivers.
TV and Satellite Communication – Principles Radar Equation and Applications of Radar
The eligibility for applying this post is First class in B.E/B.Tech in concered branch
Mainly the recruitment is divided into two parts:
PARTA: Written (Objective Type) Examination:
Paper1 General Studies :150 Marks.
Paper2 Concerned engineering Subject :300 Marks.
PARTB: ORAL TEST (Interview) 50 Marks
The syllabus for Written exam :
Paper1: General studies
01. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:
a) General Science and Technology.
b) Role and impact of science and Technology on India’s development.
(Questions will cover general appreciation and understanding of matters of everyday observation and
experience as may be expected of a welleducated person who has not made a special study of science and
technology disciplines).
02. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE:
a) Modern Indian History from 19th century to the present.
b) Nationalist Movement and Constitutional development.
c) Indian Culture and Heritage including architecture, Fine Arts, Dance Forms, Music, Paintings, Folk
Arts and performing arts.
d) History of Andhradesa Society, Culture, Geography and Economic Development.
03. INDIAN POLITY:
General and broad understanding of the structural (institutions) and functional (processes) aspects of Indian
Political System.
04. IDNIAN ECONOMY AND GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA:
a) Structure of National Economy.
b) Economic Development (including planning) since independence.
c) Economic Reforms.
d) Physical, Economic and Social Geography of India.
05. CURRENT EVENTS:
Current Events of Regional, National and International importance.
06. General Mental Ability (reasoning and analytical abilities)
a) General Science and Technology.
b) Role and impact of science and Technology on India’s development.
(Questions will cover general appreciation and understanding of matters of everyday observation and
experience as may be expected of a welleducated person who has not made a special study of science and
technology disciplines).
02. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE:
a) Modern Indian History from 19th century to the present.
b) Nationalist Movement and Constitutional development.
c) Indian Culture and Heritage including architecture, Fine Arts, Dance Forms, Music, Paintings, Folk
Arts and performing arts.
d) History of Andhradesa Society, Culture, Geography and Economic Development.
03. INDIAN POLITY:
General and broad understanding of the structural (institutions) and functional (processes) aspects of Indian
Political System.
04. IDNIAN ECONOMY AND GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA:
a) Structure of National Economy.
b) Economic Development (including planning) since independence.
c) Economic Reforms.
d) Physical, Economic and Social Geography of India.
05. CURRENT EVENTS:
Current Events of Regional, National and International importance.
06. General Mental Ability (reasoning and analytical abilities)
Paper 2: ECE Engineering
01. Network analysis, Topology, Tree Tieset out set, first and Second order Circuits.Steady State and Transient response, Sinusoidal steady State Analysis.Series and parallel Resonance, Network Theorems, Laplace Transforms, Fourier series, Fourier Transforms– Applications, Two port.
Network Parameters, Interconnection of two ports, Image Impedance, Image Parameters.
Filters – constant K and M derived sections.
Network Parameters, Interconnection of two ports, Image Impedance, Image Parameters.
Filters – constant K and M derived sections.
Electronics Devices – Diodes, Transistors, FET biasing, and characteristics, Frequency, Response, Amplifier circuits.
Electro Magnetic Theory – Maxell’s Equations. Coulomb’s law, Amper’s law , Faraday’s law, Poynting
Energy Theorem, Stoke’s theorem, uniform plane waves.
Transmission Line Theory – Standing waves & Travelling waves, Reflection, VSWR.
Electro Magnetic Theory – Maxell’s Equations. Coulomb’s law, Amper’s law , Faraday’s law, Poynting
Energy Theorem, Stoke’s theorem, uniform plane waves.
Transmission Line Theory – Standing waves & Travelling waves, Reflection, VSWR.
02. Feedback Amplifiers and oscillator Circuits Wave Shaping circuits, Logic Gates, Boolean Theorems,
Adders & Subtractors. Antennas & Propagation – Radiation Principle, Antenna parameters.
Definitions. Directional Antennas, Linear Antenna Arrays, Broadside & End fire Arrays, Gain, Directivity, Radiation pattern.
Ground Wave, Sky Wave, Ionosphere Propagation, Guided Waves, Rectangular WaveGuide Analysis,
Microwave Circuits and Components.
Microwave Tubes, Klystron, Magnetron, and TWT.
Modulation Techniques – AM, FM, PM. Channel capacity, Noise, AM, FM, Transmitters, Radio Receivers.
TV and Satellite Communication – Principles Radar Equation and Applications of Radar
Computer Programming, FORTRAN, BASIC, PASCAL, Are Programming languages.
Please touch in with us, we will upload Previous papers also..
NEETI engineering entrance exam 2018 Application procedure and Last date?
According to the reports of AICTE, Most of the colleges are sending out a large number of engineering graduates who are unemployable. So, to improve the standards of technical education MHRD plans to conduct a single engineering entrance exam called NEETI.
What is NEETI?
National Entrance Examination for Technical Institutions (NEETI) is a single entrance exam conducted by National testing service(NTS) for admission into engineering programmes .
When will be the entrance exam?
NTS will be ready to conduct NEETI by JAN 2018, It will be conducted multiple times in a year.
As per plan, the first NEETI exam is going to schedule on DEC 2017,JAN 2018
Second exam is on MARCH 2018
Third exam is on MAY 2018
Who sets the Question paper?
The paper will be set by IIT's
Who conducts exam?
NTS takes responsibilities to conduct exam.
Ref: http://indianexpress.com
What is NEETI?
National Entrance Examination for Technical Institutions (NEETI) is a single entrance exam conducted by National testing service(NTS) for admission into engineering programmes .
When will be the entrance exam?
NTS will be ready to conduct NEETI by JAN 2018, It will be conducted multiple times in a year.
As per plan, the first NEETI exam is going to schedule on DEC 2017,JAN 2018
Second exam is on MARCH 2018
Third exam is on MAY 2018
Who sets the Question paper?
The paper will be set by IIT's
Who conducts exam?
NTS takes responsibilities to conduct exam.
Ref: http://indianexpress.com
Different M.Tech courses or branches with high job opportunities related to ece in india
Job opportunities are more for VLSI,Embedded, Communications, Computer science and signal processing branches in reputed colleges like IIT’s,NIT’s and Top universities.
So,According to my opinion its better to take any of the five branches. Here I am not saying that the remaining branches have no job opportunities but when compared to the above five branches remaining branches have less opportunities.
So,Try to get admission in any five course in reputed college, for that you need to get a good score in GATE exam. If you didn’t get any of the five branches don’t worry whatever branch your studying perform well in that branch then there is a chance of getting good job.
Different ECE M.Tech Branches
1. Digital Electronics & Communication
2. Signal Processing
3. Computers & Communications
4. VLSI System Design
5. Robotics
6. Computer science
7. Microwave & Radar Engineering
8. Communications Systems
9. Embedded Systems
10. Electronics Instrumentation and Comm.Systems
11. Image Processing
12. Micro electronics
13. Mechatronics
2. Signal Processing
3. Computers & Communications
4. VLSI System Design
5. Robotics
6. Computer science
7. Microwave & Radar Engineering
8. Communications Systems
9. Embedded Systems
10. Electronics Instrumentation and Comm.Systems
11. Image Processing
12. Micro electronics
13. Mechatronics
APGENCO 2017 Syllabus for ECE in pdf
APGENCO is one of the power generation company in Andhrapradesh state, they directly recruit AE based on the written test conducted by them,the written test consists of two sections
PartA: Technical
PartB: Aptitude
Here we are giving syllabus for electronics branch and trying to put previous papers with solutions soon,to get updates subscribe your email.
Downlaod syllabus:
PartA: Technical
PartB: Aptitude
Here we are giving syllabus for electronics branch and trying to put previous papers with solutions soon,to get updates subscribe your email.
1. Basics of Circuits and Measurement Systems:

Kirchoff.s laws, mesh and nodal Analysis, Circuit theorems. Oneport and twoport Network Function. Static and dynamic characteristics of Measurement Systems. Error and uncertainty analysis. Statistical analysis of data and curve fitting.

2. Transducers, Mechanical Measurement and Industrial Instrumentation:

Resistive, Capacitive, Inductive and piezoelectric transducers and their signal conditioning. Measurement of displacement, velocity and acceleration (translational and rotational), force, torque, vibration and shock. Measurement of pressure, flow, temperature and liquid level. Measurement of pH, conductivity, viscosity and humidity.

3. Analog Electronics:

Characteristics of diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits. Transistors at low and high frequencies, Amplifiers, single and multistage. Feedback amplifiers. Operational amplifiers, characteristics and circuit configurations, Instrumentation amplifier. Precision rectifier. VtoI and ItoV converter. OpAmp based active filters. Oscillators and signal generators.

4. Digital Electronics:

Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families, TTL, MOS and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits, Comparators, Schmitt trigger, timers and monostable multi vibrator. Sequential circuits, flipflops, counters, shift registers, Multiplexer, S/H circuit, AnalogtoDigital and DigitaltoAnalog converters. Basics of number system. Microprocessor applications, memory and inputoutput interfacing. Microcontrollers.

5. Signals, Systems and Communications:

Periodic and aperiodic signals. Impulse response, transfer function and frequency response of first and second order systems. Convolution, correlation and characteristics of linear time invariant systems. Discrete time system, impulse and frequency response. Pulse transfer function. IIR and FIR filters. Amplitude and frequency modulation and demodulation. Sampling theorem, pulse code modulation. Frequency and time division multiplexing. Amplitude shift keying, frequency shift keying and pulse shift keying for digital modulation.

6. Electrical and Electronic Measurements:

Bridges and potentiometers, measurement of R, L and C. Measurements of voltage, current, power, power factor and energy. A.C & D.C current probes, Extension of instrument ranges. Qmeter and waveform analyzer, Digital voltmeter and multimeter, Time, phase and frequency measurements, Cathode ray oscilloscope, Serial and parallel communication, Shielding and grounding

7. Control Systems and Process Control:

Feedback principles. Signal flow graphs. Transient Response, steadystateerrors. Routh and Nyquist criteria. Bode plot, root loci. Time delay systems. Phase and gain margin. State space representation of systems. Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components. Synchro pair, servo and step motors. Onoff, cascade, P, PI, PID, feed forward and derivative controller, Fuzzy controllers.

8. Analytical, Optical Instrumentation:

Mass spectrometry, UV, visible and IR spectrometry, Xray and nuclear radiation measurements. Optical sources and detectors, LED, laser, Photodiode, photoresistor and their characteristics. Interferometers, applications in metrology. Basics of fiber optics.

Downlaod syllabus:
Plan your B.tech career to get a job in electronics core company
We are all electronics engineers looking for a job in core company, here I am giving some suggestions to get a core job based on my experience. we know that there are two core sectors one is private and second one is a government sector, you should decide which one we have to choose. If you choose a private sector the preparation will be little bit different than government sector.
 Most of the government sector companies will recruit talented candidates based on the GATE score, I already discussed and posted the list of companies which are recruiting purely based on GATE score, Now I am discussing about the companies which are recruiting through the written test conducted by them.
 The written test will consists of Technical(GATE/IES preparation is enough), General English,General aptitude and General awareness. so, you should clear knowledge on both technical and non technical concepts.
 Now the private sector : In case you have companies visiting your campus , GATE /IES preparation would be enough for you to get through the technical written exams and for non technical: Aptitude,English and basic programming languages.
 For interviews one can focus on the Projects and Internships. Though preparing all this can help you in the interview it would be advisable that you begin to revise your course subjects from the very start of your final year. This would help you clear your concepts and that is really important.
 In case the core companies do not visit campus then make sure that you properly utilize your internships and projects and apply in companies that work in similar domains.
 We gave some core companies list, so you can post your resume through the carrier links provided. The following skills are must for private companies
1. C Programming  Must
2. C Language  Basics
3. Data structures
Ecatn Tags: ece core jobs, after b.tech
Materials used to made a CPU Processor
Recently, Intel has published a page showing the stepbystep process of how a CPU is made. From sand to its final product, there are many complex steps involved. In fact, it’s absolutely amazing that semiconductor products work at all.
At about 25% (by mass), silicon is the second most frequent chemical in the earth’s crust (behind oxygen). Sand has a high percentage of Silicon Dioxide (SiO_{2}), which is the base ingredient for semiconductor manufacturing.
Step 2 – Melted Silicon
Silicon is purified in multiple steps to reach the Electronic Grade Silicon used in semiconductors. It ultimately arrives in mono crystal ingots about 12″ in diameter (300mm today, the older ingots were 8″ or 200mm in diameter and smaller — the first wafers in the 1970s were 2″ in diameter, or 50mm).
The purity at this level of refinement is about one part per billion, meaning only one foreign atom per billion silicon atoms. The ingot weighs about 220lbs, and is a 99.9999% pure vertical column of slick glasslooking material.
The ingot is cut with a very thin saw into individual silicon slices (called wafers), each of which are then polished to a flawless mirrorsmooth surface. It is upon this totally smooth wafer surface that the tiny copper wires are deposited in the following several steps.
A photo resist liquid is poured onto the wafer while it spins at high speed (similar to materials used in conventional photography). This spinning deposits a thin and even resist layer across the entire surface.
From there, an ultraviolet laser is shone through masks and a lens (which make a focused image 4x smaller than the mask) causing tiny illuminated UV lines on the surface. Everywhere these lines strike the resist, a chemical reaction takes place making those portions soluble.
The soluble photo resist material is then completely dissolved by a chemical solvent. From there, an etching chemical is used to partially dissolve (or etch) away a tiny quantity of the polished semiconductor material (the substrate). Finally, the remainder of the photo resist material is removed through a similar washing process, revealing the etched surface of the wafer.
In order to create the tiny copper wires which ultimately convey electricity to/from the chip’s various connectors, additional photo resists are added, exposed and washed. Next, a process called ion implantation is used to dope and protect locations where copper ions are deposited from a copper sulfate solution in a process called electroplating.
At various stages during these processes, additional materials are added, exposed, washed / etched and polished. This process is repeated six times for sixlayer processes, which is reportedly what Intel uses for their current 45nm highk, metal gate processes.
The final product looks like a jungle gym, a a host of tiny copper bars which convey electricity. Some of these are connected, some are exactly a specific distance away from other ones. And all of them are used for one purpose: To convey electrons, wielding their electromagnetic effects in a particular way to conduct what we would call “useful work” (such as adding two numbers together at extremely high rates of speed, the very essence of modern day computing).
This multilayer process is repeated at every single spot on the surface of the entire wafer where chips can be made. This includes even those areas which are partially off the edge of the wafer. Why waste that space? It’s because the early chip makers learned that if they did not fill in these areas with (obviously) wasted semiconductor material, that the chips nearby also had a higher failure rate.
Once all of the metal layers are built up, and the circuits (transistors) are all created, it’s time for testing. A device with lots of prongs sits down on top of the chip, attaching microscopic leads to the chip’s surface. Each lead completes an electrical connection within the chip, simulating how it would operate in final form once packaged into endconsumer products.
A series of test signals are sent to the chip with whatever the results are being read. This level of testing includes not only traditional computational abilities, but also internal diagnostics along with voltage readings, cascade sequences (does data flow through as it should), etc. And however the chip responds as a result of this testing, is what’s stored in a database assigned specifically for that die.
This process is repeated for every die on the entire wafer’s surface while all dies are still on the surface.
Step 8 – Slicing
A tiny diamondtipped saw is used to cut the silicon wafer into its various dies. The database derived in Step 7 is used to determine which chips cut from the wafer are kept, and which are discarded. The ones which produced “the right results” in Step 7’s testing are kept, with the rest being thrown away.
At this point, all working dies get put into a physical package. It’s important to note that while they’ve had preliminary tested and were found to operate correctly, this doesn’t mean they’re good CPUs.
The physical packaging process involves placing the silicon die onto a green substrate material, to which tiny gold leads are connected to the chip’s pins or ball grid array, which show through the bottom side of the package. On the top of that, a heat spreader is introduced. This appears as the metal package on top of a chip. When finished, the CPU looks like a traditional package endconsumers buy.
Note: The metal heat spreader is a crucial component on modern highspeed semiconductors. In the past, a ceramic top was used with no active cooling. It wasn’t until the 80386 and later time frame, along with some extreme highspeed 8086 and 80286 (100MHz models), that active cooling was required. Prior to that, the chips had so few transistors (the original 8086 had 29K, today’s CPUs have 100s of millions) that they didn’t generate enough heat to require active cooling. To separate themselves, these later ceramic chips were stamped with the warning: “Heatsink required”.
Modern CPUs generate enough heat to melt themselves in a few seconds. Only by having the heat spreader connected to a large heat sink (and fan) can they operate longterm as they do.
At this point the package looks like you or I will buy it. Still, there is one more step involved. This final step is called binning.
In this process, the actual characteristics of this particular CPU is measured. Items such as voltage, frequency, performance, heat generation and other internal operational characteristics of its cache, for example, are all measured.
The best chips are generally binned as higherend parts, being sold as not only the fastest parts with their full caches enabled, but also the lowvoltage and ultra lowvoltage models. Note: Based on market demand, these highestend chips can also be sold as lesser chip parts.
Chips which do not perform as well as the best chips are often sold for lower clock speed models, or as a triple or dualcore (Phenom X3, Phenom X2) instead of their native quadcore. Others may have half their cache disabled (Celeron), etc.
The process of binning ultimately determines the final yield at given speeds, voltages and thermal characteristics. For example, on a standard wafer only 5% of the chips produced might operate at the highestend clock rate of 3.2GHz. However, 50% may operate at 2.8GHz.
While this performance yield does not relate to operational yield, it is equally as important to manufacturers as they are constantly looking to determine the reasons why one CPU might operate at 2.8GHz without issue, but not faster, while another operates at 3.2GHz. As the cause of this discrepancy is determined, sometimes the chip’s very design can be updated to increase the performance yield (and operational yields).
ISRO Electronics Exam pattern and 2017 weightage of marks
ISRO is one of the Space company in india, every year they recruit engineering graduates as a Scientists in one of their centres, ISRO has many centres in india, Here we provide you exam pattern and weightage analysis for ISRO Electronics exam based on previous year exams.
ISRO Electronics Exam pattern & Selection process:
ISRO Electronics Exam pattern & Selection process:
 written exam is of objective type.
 paper consist of 80 questions carries of total 240 Marks and time allotted is 90 mins.
 Each question carries 3 marks for correct answer (1 Mark is deducted for each wrong answer).
 Selection is based on written test and performance in interview.
 Electromagnetics – 15 to 20 Questions (45 Marks to 60 Marks)
 Communications  15 to 20 Questions (45 Marks to 60 Marks)
 Electronic Devices – 10 to 12 Questions (30 Marks to 36 Marks)
 Networks – 7 to 11 Questions (21 Marks to 33 Marks)
 Digital Circuits & Microprocessor – 6 to 10 Questions (18 Marks to 30 Marks)
 Signal and Systems – 5 to 7 Questions (15 Marks to 21 Marks)
 Microwave Engineering – 4 to 6 Questions (12 Marks to 18 Marks)
 Analog Electronics – 3 to 5 Questions (9 Marks to 15 Marks)
 Control Systems  3 to 6 Questions (9 Marks to 18 Marks)
Know about wearable devices technology
Wearable devices are miniature electronic devices and their market is expanding at high rate. There are many examples of "wearables¨ available today. For example, smart glasses, ear buds, headphones, smart clothing, smart watches, fitness bands, smart jewellery. Mobile Wearable technologies is the pioneer and worldwide leading innovation and market development platform for technologies worn close to the body, on the body or even in the body. Thus, all types of "wearables" are portable however they are also related to the cloudbased services that take the data from the devices and return analytics and insights to benefit the user.
While designing wearable technologies factors to be considered are as follows:
The wearable market grows more and more as the interaction between watches, phones, glasses, headsets, and clothing increases. So, with more devices in the market each day, developers are needed to build applications for these devices. Wearable devices will change the way applications are designed and developed. For example, Google's Android Wear is an Android platform that will help developers build apps that work on the various wearable devices.
Wearable technologies are used in almost all fields, such as follows:
While designing wearable technologies factors to be considered are as follows:
 Power. Power consumption is a critical design requirement and thus a challenge in "wearables". Battery power in "wearables" is expected to last for a significant amount of time.
 Connectivity. "Wearables" require connection with other devices via wireless connectivity. Wireless protocols are WiFi, Bluetooth Low Energy, IEEE 802.15.4. Many times wearable devices support more than one wireless protocol.
 Size. Technology is becoming more and more versatile along with decreasing its size; such technology also attracts the market. Same is the case with wearable devices i.e very powerful functions are to be packed into a very small space. As they need to be compact, a small touchscreen with gesture detection capabilities is carried on wearable electronic. The touchscreen can be capacitive, resistive, surface acoustic wave, and optical imaging.
 Aesthetics. While maintaining size and functions, best wearable devices also need to be stylish and fashionable and blend well with other ornaments.
 Tolerance. Based on the type of wearable device, tolerance of heat, water and vibrations becomes a necessity. For example, smart watches need to be tolerant to water and same is expected from fitness bands.
The wearable market grows more and more as the interaction between watches, phones, glasses, headsets, and clothing increases. So, with more devices in the market each day, developers are needed to build applications for these devices. Wearable devices will change the way applications are designed and developed. For example, Google's Android Wear is an Android platform that will help developers build apps that work on the various wearable devices.
Wearable technologies are used in almost all fields, such as follows:
 Sports and Fitness. Tracking performance is increasingly important for athletes to get qualified input about vital data during workouts. Wearables devices make such measurements smooth and unobstructive. Some "wearables" widely in use in this category are GPS watches, heart rate monitors and pedometers.
 Healthcare and wellness. Remote patient monitoring has become possible. Wearable medical devices give patient freedom to move around as they like.
 Security and prevention. Wearable Technologies are used to ensure highest, uptodate safety and security standards. For example, special lighting technologies for better visibility, home security systems, protective clothing and special gear for extreme sports, rescue teams, workers, or tracking devices for a healthy lifestyle.
 Gaming and lifestyle. World of gaming is undergoing huge changes, and the "Wearables" are playing a massive role in it.
Central Electronics Ltd Recruitment 2017
Central Electronic Limited(CEL) recruits Graduate Engineers for contract basis through GATE score.
Qualification : Full time Bachelor’s Degree or Masters Degree in relevant discipline with not less than 65% marks. Final year/semester students shall also be eligible. However, they would have to obtain at least 65% marks in their engineering degree. Eligible candidates shall have to appear for Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering GATE2017. Based on the GATE2017 marks and requirement, candidates shall be shortlisted in the 1st stage
How to Apply :
Candidates need to appear for GATE2017 and apply online for the post from 0401 2017 to 03022017.
Click here for more details
Qualification : Full time Bachelor’s Degree or Masters Degree in relevant discipline with not less than 65% marks. Final year/semester students shall also be eligible. However, they would have to obtain at least 65% marks in their engineering degree. Eligible candidates shall have to appear for Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering GATE2017. Based on the GATE2017 marks and requirement, candidates shall be shortlisted in the 1st stage
How to Apply :
Candidates need to appear for GATE2017 and apply online for the post from 0401 2017 to 03022017.
Click here for more details
Short term certified courses offered by CDAC for ECE
Here I am giving some courses for ECE candidates to get in to core companies like Intel, Samsung,Qualcomm and so on…
PG diploma courses offered by CDAC to electronics and communication engineers(ECE)
How to enter into CDAC:
The Admissions to these courses are done through CDAC's computerized Common Admission Test (CCAT). Candidates have to apply for CCAT online at www.cdac.in or acts.cdac.in .
SEE MORE >> Best ECE certificate training courses to get an opportunities in core companies
Important dates:
For August Admissions: CCAT is usually conducted in June and
For February admissions: The exam will conducts on December.
Best Course for a better career: As per my suggestion VLSI has better career in industries, later embedded systems..choose the one which you like most..
PG diploma courses offered by CDAC to electronics and communication engineers(ECE)
S.No  Course Name 
1  PG Diploma in Embedded Systems Design (PGDESD) 
2  PG Diploma in VLSI Design (PGDVLSI) 
3  PG Diploma in Biomedical Instrumentation & Health Informatics (PGDBIHI) 
How to enter into CDAC:
The Admissions to these courses are done through CDAC's computerized Common Admission Test (CCAT). Candidates have to apply for CCAT online at www.cdac.in or acts.cdac.in .
SEE MORE >> Best ECE certificate training courses to get an opportunities in core companies
Important dates:
For August Admissions: CCAT is usually conducted in June and
For February admissions: The exam will conducts on December.
Best Course for a better career: As per my suggestion VLSI has better career in industries, later embedded systems..choose the one which you like most..
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